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Business Reforms for Registering Property

Positive= Doing Business reform making it easier to do business.Negative= Change making it more difficult to do business.

Afghanistan

DB 2010: Afghanistan made registering property easier by reducing property transfer taxes.

DB 2008: Afghanistan made registering property easier by streamlining the process of obtaining approvals and by digitizing the title deed record systems of some district courts.

Albania

DB 2015: Albania made transferring property easier by establishing effective time limits and computerizing the records on immovable property.

DB 2012: Albania made property registration easier by setting time limits for the land registry to register a title.

Algeria

DB 2010: Algeria made registering property easier and less costly by reducing notary fees and eliminating the capital gains tax.

Angola

DB 2012: Angola made transferring property less costly by reducing transfer taxes.

DB 2010: Angola speeded up property transfers by digitizing the land registry in Luanda and splitting it into 2 units, each responsible for half the land covered by the registry.

Antigua and Barbuda

DB 2018: Antigua and Barbuda made property registration faster by eliminating application backlogs, which were initially caused by a fire at the land registry

DB 2011: In Antigua and Barbuda, to transfer property now requires clearance by the chief surveyor to avoid mischievous declarations.

Argentina

DB 2012: Argentina made transferring property more difficult by adding a requirement that the notary obtain the tax agency’s reference value for property before notarizing the sale deed.

DB 2010: Argentina made transferring property more difficult by adding a new requirement to declare all transactions over 300,000 Argentine pesos.

Armenia

DB 2018: Armenia made registering property easier by improving the land dispute resolution mechanisms of the land administration system.

Austria

DB 2011: Austria made it easier to transfer property by requiring online submission of all applications to register property transfers.

Azerbaijan

DB 2015: Azerbaijan made transferring property easier by introducing an online procedure for obtaining the nonencumbrance certificate.

DB 2009: Azerbaijan made registering property easier and less time consuming by introducing a unified property registry.

Bahamas, The

DB 2017: The Bahamas made registering property easier by reducing the cost of transferring a property.

DB 2014: The Bahamas made transferring property easier by reducing the stamp duty.

DB 2012: The Bahamas made transferring property more costly by increasing the applicable stamp duty fees.

DB 2009: The Bahamas reduced the time required for transferring property by introducing a computerized system at the Registry of Records.

Bahrain

DB 2015: Bahrain made registering property easier by reducing the registration fee.

DB 2011: Bahrain made registering property more burdensome by increasing the fees at the Survey and Land Registration Bureau.

Bangladesh

DB 2011: Bangladesh reduced the property transfer tax to 6.7% of the property value.

DB 2009: Bangladesh speeded up property registration by increasing efficiency at the municipal deed registry office.

Belarus

DB 2017: Belarus made it easier to transfer a property by improving the transparency and reliability of the land administration system.

DB 2016: Belarus made transferring property easier by introducing a new expedited procedure.

DB 2014: Belarus made transferring property easier by introducing a fast-track procedure for property registration.

DB 2012: Belarus simplified property transfer by doing away with the requirement to obtain the municipality’s approval for transfers of most commercial buildings in Minsk.

DB 2010: Belarus continued to improve the property registration process by increasing efficiency at the land registry in Minsk, which reduced the time required to verify ownership, and by eliminating the requirement to have incorporation documents notarized during property transfers.

DB 2009: Belarus speeded up property registration by creating a unified registry, introducing strict time limits at the registry and computerizing its property records.

Belgium

DB 2016: Belgium made transferring property easier by introducing electronic property registration.

DB 2012: Belgium made property registration quicker for entrepreneurs by setting time limits and implementing its “e-notariat” system.

DB 2011: Belgium’s capital city, Brussels, made it more difficult to transfer property by requiring a clean-soil certificate.

DB 2010: Belgium made transferring property easier by setting statutory time limits for some procedures.

Benin

DB 2018: Benin made registering property less costly by eliminating the tax registration. It also improved the transparency of the land administration system by publishing documentary requirements and fee schedule required for property transactions.

DB 2008: Benin made transferring property less costly by reducing the registration fee.

Bhutan

DB 2016: Bhutan made transferring property easier by introducing a computerized land information system.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

DB 2013: Bosnia and Herzegovina made it easier to transfer property between companies by computerizing the commercial registry.

DB 2011: Bosnia and Herzegovina reduced delays in property registration at the land registry in Sarajevo.

DB 2009: Bosnia and Herzegovina speeded up property registration by computerizing files at the land registry in Sarajevo.

Botswana

DB 2018: Botswana made registering property more difficult by reducing the efficiency of its Registrar of Deeds as it implements the computerization of manual records.

DB 2010: Botswana made registering property more difficult by adding a requirement to notify the tax agency of the value added tax payment.

Brazil

DB 2016: Brazil made transferring property in São Paulo more expensive by increasing the property transfer tax.

DB 2013: Brazil made transferring property more difficult by introducing a new certificate on good standing on labor debts, adding to the number of due diligence procedures.

Brunei Darussalam

DB 2018: Brunei made registering property easier by increasing the transparency of its land administration system and by improving the land administration system’s dispute resolution mechanisms.

Bulgaria

DB 2010: Bulgaria reduced the time required to register property by launching an integrated web-based property register making it possible to check the ownership and cadastre status of properties online.

Burkina Faso

DB 2010: Burkina Faso streamlined property registration by allowing the payment of transfer taxes at the land registry, reorganizing the land registry, setting statutory time limits for procedures and simplifying property valuation by government officials through the use of tables of values based on materials used.

DB 2009: Burkina Faso made transferring property easier and less costly by eliminating the requirement to obtain authorization from the municipality, merging the payment of 2 taxes at the land registry and reducing the transfer tax rate.

DB 2008: Burkina Faso made registering property less costly by reducing the registration tax.

Burundi

DB 2014: Burundi made transferring property easier by creating a one-stop shop for property registration.

DB 2013: Burundi made property transfers faster by establishing a statutory time limit for processing property transfer requests at the land registry.

DB 2009: Burundi made registering property cheaper by reducing the registration fee. These measures were in part motivated by the desire of these countries to pass the Millennium Challenge Corporation eligibility threshold.

DB 2008: Burundi made registering property less costly by reducing the registration fee.

Cabo Verde

DB 2016: Cabo Verde made transferring property less costly by lowering the property registration tax.

DB 2014: Cape Verde made property transfers faster by digitizing its land registry.

DB 2012: Cape Verde made registering property faster by implementing time limits for the notaries and the land registry.

DB 2011: Cape Verde eased property registration by switching from fees based on a percentage of the property value to lower fixed rates.

Central African Republic

DB 2012: The Central African Republic halved the cost of registering property.

Chad

DB 2016: Chad made transferring property less costly by lowering the property transfer tax.

DB 2014: Chad made transferring property easier by lowering the property transfer tax.

Colombia

DB 2015: Colombia made transferring property easier by eliminating the need for a provisional registration.

DB 2010: Colombia made transferring property easier by making certificates required for the process available online and providing a standard preliminary sale agreement free of charge, online and in notary offices.

Comoros

DB 2017: Comoros made transferring a property less expensive by reducing transfer costs.

DB 2013: The Comoros made it easier to transfer property by reducing the property transfer tax.

Congo, Dem. Rep.

DB 2017: The Democratic Republic of Congo made it more expensive to transfer property by increasing the property transfer tax.

DB 2011: The Democratic Republic of Congo reduced by half the property transfer tax to 3% of the property value.

Congo, Rep.

DB 2016: The Republic of Congo made transferring property less costly by lowering the property transfer tax rate.

DB 2012: The Republic of Congo made registering property more expensive by reversing a previous law that reduced the registration fee.

DB 2009: The Republic of Congo reduced the cost and time to register property by lowering the registration fee and allowing private appraisers to evaluate property.

Costa Rica

DB 2018: Costa Rica decreased the time needed to transfer a property through several measures, including the introduction of effective time limits.

DB 2012: Costa Rica made transferring property easier and quicker by making property certificates available online through a single website.

Côte d'Ivoire

DB 2016: Côte d’Ivoire made transferring property less costly by lowering the property transfer tax rate.

DB 2015: Côte d’Ivoire made transferring property easier by digitizing its land registry system and lowering the property registration tax.

DB 2014: Côte d’Ivoire made transferring property easier by streamlining procedures and reducing the property transfer tax.

Croatia

DB 2018: Croatia made it less costly to transfer property by lowering the real estate transfer tax.

DB 2008: Croatia reduced the time required to register property through ongoing improvements at the land registry.

Cyprus

DB 2013: Cyprus made property transfers faster by computerizing its land registry.

Czech Republic

DB 2014: The Czech Republic made transferring property more costly by increasing the property transfer tax rate.

DB 2013: The Czech Republic made registering property easier by allowing the cadastral office online access to the commercial registry’s database and thus eliminating the need to obtain a paper certificate from the registry before applying for registration at the cadastre.

DB 2012: The Czech Republic speeded up property registration by computerizing its cadastral office, digitizing all its data and introducing electronic communications with notaries.

DB 2010: The Czech Republic made registering property easier through ongoing reorganization of the registry combined with computerization.

Denmark

DB 2013: Denmark made registering property easier by introducing electronic submission of property transfer applications at the land registry.

DB 2011: Computerization of Denmark’s land registry cut the number of procedures required to register property by half.

Djibouti

DB 2018: Djibouti made registering property easier by increasing the transparency of the land administration system.

DB 2008: Djibouti made property registration faster by improving efficiency at the Service des Domaines.

Dominican Republic

DB 2009: The Dominican Republic made registering property less costly by reducing and simplifying the taxes collected in property transactions.

DB 2008: The Dominican Republic made registering property easier by adopting several laws aimed at streamlining the process.

Ecuador

DB 2018: Ecuador made registering property more burdensome by requiring a valuation certificate to register a property transfer.

DB 2017: Ecuador improved the quality of its land administration system by removing restrictions on ownership rights between married men and women.

DB 2013: In Ecuador property transfers became more time consuming as a result of implementation problems in transferring authority over property records to the municipality of Quito.

Egypt, Arab Rep.

DB 2018: The Arab Republic of Egypt made it more difficult to register property by raising the cost to verify and ratify a sales contract.

DB 2009: Egypt speeded up property registration by simplifying administrative procedures, reorganizing the business workflow between the real estate registry and the Egyptian Surveying Authority and introducing time limits for several procedures.

DB 2008: Egypt reduced the cost of registering property by introducing a low fixed fee.

Estonia

DB 2010: Estonia made registering property easier by computerizing property records at the land registry and thereby enabling notaries to carry out the process online.

Ethiopia

DB 2010: Ethiopia made transferring property easier by decentralizing administrative tasks and merging procedures at the land registry and municipality.

Fiji

DB 2013: Fiji made transferring property more difficult by requiring parties to a property transaction to obtain a capital gains tax clearance certificate from the Fiji Revenue and Customs Authority.

France

DB 2017: France made transferring property more expensive by increasing property transfer tax rate and introducing an additional tax for businesses in Paris.

DB 2014: France made transferring property easier by speeding up the registration of the deed of sale at the land registry.

DB 2010: France made transferring property easier and less time consuming by more fully implementing an online system that enables notaries to obtain encumbrance and ownership documents from the land registry electronically.

DB 2008: France reduced the time required to register property by implementing a new system (Télé@ctes) allowing notaries to access the land registry electronically.

Gabon

DB 2016: Gabon made transferring property less costly by lowering the property registration tax.

DB 2015: Gabon made transferring property more costly by increasing the property registration tax rate.

DB 2013: In Gabon registering property became more difficult because of longer administrative delays at the land registry.

Georgia

DB 2017: Georgia improved the quality of land administration by increasing coverage of all maps for privately held land plots in the main business city.

DB 2009: Georgia made registering property easier by eliminating the requirement for several documents and simplifying and reducing the registration fees.

DB 2008: Georgia made transferring property easier by eliminating the notarization requirement for the sale agreement and reducing the time required to obtain an entrepreneurial registry excerpt of the seller’s/purchaser’s registration from the district court.

Germany

DB 2015: Germany made it more expensive to register property by increasing the property transfer tax.

DB 2008: Germany made transferring property more costly by increasing the transfer tax in Berlin.

Ghana

DB 2008: Ghana made property registration faster by eliminating the requirement to register the deed of sale at the Lands Commission.

Greece

DB 2015: Greece made it easier to transfer property by reducing the property transfer tax and removing the requirement for the municipal tax clearance certificate.

DB 2011: Greece made transferring property more costly by increasing the transfer tax from 1% of the property value to 10%.

Grenada

DB 2011: The appointment of a registrar focusing only on property cut the time needed to transfer property in Grenada by almost half.

Guatemala

DB 2008: Guatemala reduced the time required to register property by allowing registrars to submit electronic signatures.

Guinea

DB 2015: Guinea made registering property easier by reorganizing the records at the land registry and reducing the notary fees.

DB 2014: Guinea made transferring property easier by reducing the property transfer tax.

Guinea-Bissau

DB 2016: Guinea-Bissau made transferring property easier by lowering the property registration tax.

DB 2014: Guinea-Bissau made transferring property easier by increasing the number of notaries dealing with property transactions.

DB 2008: Guinea-Bissau made registering property less costly by lowering the registration or transfer tax.

Guyana

DB 2018: Guyana made it easier to transfer property by decreasing the time to transfer a property by allocating higher resources in infrastructure and personnel

DB 2017: Guyana made registering property easier by increasing the transparency of the Lands & Survey Commission.

DB 2012: In Guyana transferring property became slower because of a lack of personnel at the deed registry.

Haiti

DB 2008: Haiti made registering property simpler by streamlining the process at the tax authority.

Honduras

DB 2018: Honduras made registration of property more difficult by reducing the number of employees at the land registry.

DB 2008: Honduras made registering property easier by setting time limits for the completion of certain procedures.

Hong Kong SAR, China

DB 2018: Hong Kong SAR, China, improved the quality of its land administration system by enhancing its reliability and establishing a complaints mechanism.

DB 2014: Hong Kong SAR, China, made transferring property more costly by increasing the stamp duty.

DB 2010: Hong Kong SAR, China, made registering property easier by making it possible to submit the stamp duty for the sale act (property assignment) online.

Hungary

DB 2011: Hungary reduced the property registration fee by 6% of the property value.

DB 2009: Hungary established a new registry office in Budapest, which speeded up property registration by reducing the time required to register a title.

DB 2008: Hungary made property registration faster by opening a second land registry office in Budapest, which reduced the time required to submit an application to the land registry and to register the title.

Iceland

DB 2015: Iceland made transferring property more costly by increasing the stamp duty rate.

Indonesia

DB 2018: Indonesia made registering property easier by reducing the transfer tax. This reform applies to Jakarta and Surabaya.

DB 2017: Indonesia made it easier to register property by digitizing its cadastral records and setting up a geographic information system.

DB 2010: Indonesia made registering property easier by introducing time limits for procedures at the land registry.

Ireland

DB 2015: Ireland made transferring property easier by enhancing its computerized system at the land registry and implementing an online system for the registration of title.

DB 2013: Ireland made property transfers less costly by introducing a single stamp duty rate for transfers of nonresidential property. It also extended compulsory registration to all property in Ireland.

DB 2010: Ireland made registering property easier by reducing the maximum chargeable stamp duty for property transactions.

Israel

DB 2013: Israel made transferring property easier by tightening time limits for tax authorities to process capital gains self-assessments on property transfers.

DB 2009: Israel made property registration cheaper by eliminating the sale tax.

Italy

DB 2014: Italy made transferring property easier by eliminating the requirement for an energy performance certificate for commercial buildings with no heating system.

DB 2013: Italy made transferring property easier by digitizing cadastral maps of properties and making the maps available to notaries online.

Jamaica

DB 2014: Jamaica made transferring property more difficult by increasing the transfer tax and the stamp duty.

DB 2011: Jamaica eased the transfer of property by lowering transfer taxes and fees, offering expedited registration procedures and making information from the company registrar available online.

DB 2010: Jamaica made registering property easier by reducing the property transfer tax.

DB 2009: Jamaica made transferring property less costly by reducing the property transfer tax and the stamp duty.

Jordan

DB 2010: Jordan made registering property easier by reducing the property transfer fees.

Kazakhstan

DB 2018: Kazakhstan made it easier to transfer a property by improving transparency and the land administration system’s dispute resolution mechanisms.

DB 2016: Kazakhstan made transferring property easier by eliminating the requirement to obtain a technical passport for the transfer and to have the seller’s and buyer’s incorporation documents notarized.

DB 2015: Kazakhstan made registering property easier by introducing effective time limits and an expedited procedure.

DB 2014: Kazakhstan made it easier to transfer property by introducing a fast-track procedure for property registration.

DB 2009: Kazakhstan made transferring property easier and less time consuming through a new law creating a unified registry for all land and buildings and introducing public service centers as competent authorities for property transactions.

Kenya

DB 2017: Kenya made Registering property easier by increasing the transparency at its land registry and cadastre.

DB 2016: Kenya made property transfers faster by improving electronic document management at the land registry and introducing a unified form for registration.

DB 2008: Kenya speeded up property registration by allowing private practitioners (in addition to government valuers) to carry out land valuations, which reduced the time required for a valuation from a month to a week.

Korea, Rep.

DB 2015: The Republic of Korea made transferring property easier by reducing the time needed to buy housing bonds and to register the property transfer.

Kosovo

DB 2015: Kosovo made transferring property more difficult by increasing the fee for the registration of property transactions.

DB 2014: Kosovo made transferring property easier by introducing a new notary system and by combining procedures for drafting and legalizing sale and purchase agreements.

Kuwait

DB 2018: Kuwait made registering property easier by lowering the number of days necessary to register property and by improving the transparency of the land administration system.

Kyrgyz Republic

DB 2018: The Kyrgyz Republic made property registration less transparent by no longer making official statistics on property transfers available to the public.

DB 2016: The Kyrgyz Republic made transferring property easier by introducing an online procedure for obtaining the nonencumbrance certificates.

DB 2010: The Kyrgyz Republic made registering property easier by simplifying documentation requirements and making notarization optional.

DB 2008: The Kyrgyz Republic made registering property more costly by increasing the registration fees.

Lao PDR

DB 2011: Lao PDR made resgistering property faster by moving to a title system.

Latvia

DB 2016: Latvia made transferring property easier by introducing a new application form for transfers.

DB 2012: Latvia made transferring property easier by allowing electronic access to municipal tax databases that show the tax status of property, eliminating the requirement to obtain this information in paper format.

DB 2009: Latvia made registering property easier by introducing an online database allowing the land registry’s employees to verify the cadastral value of real estate.

Lebanon

DB 2016: Lebanon made transferring property more complex by increasing the time required for property registration.

Lesotho

DB 2014: Lesotho made transferring property easier by streamlining procedures and increasing administrative efficiency.

DB 2008: Lesotho made transferring property easier for married women by allowing them to do so without their husband’s signature.

Liberia

DB 2014: Liberia made transferring property easier by digitizing the records at the land registry.

Lithuania

DB 2009: Lithuania made registering property easier by merging the procedure for obtaining the real estate transaction certificate with the notarization procedure.

Macedonia, FYR

DB 2014: FYR Macedonia made property registration faster and less costly by digitizing the real estate cadastre and eliminating the requirement for an encumbrance certificate.

DB 2012: FYR Macedonia made registering property easier by reducing notary fees and enforcing time limits.

DB 2010: FYR Macedonia made registering property easier by setting new time limits for registering a title deed at the real estate cadastre and by making it possible to obtain a nonencumbrance certificate from the real estate registry rather than through the court.

DB 2009: FYR Macedonia reduced the time needed to register property by increasing the staff in the cadastre office.

Madagascar

DB 2016: Madagascar made transferring property less costly by lowering the property transfer tax.

DB 2010: Madagascar made transferring property more costly by making the use of a notary mandatory for property transactions.

DB 2009: Madagascar made registering property easier by reorganizing its land registry and adding more staff, computers and offices—and made it less costly by abolishing 2 taxes and removing the mandatory stamp duty on documents.

Malawi

DB 2014: Malawi made transferring property easier by reducing the stamp duty.

DB 2012: Malawi made property registration slower by no longer sustaining last year’s time improvement in Compliance Certificate processing times at the Ministry of Lands.

DB 2011: Malawi eased property transfers by cutting the wait for consents and registration of legal instruments by half.

Malaysia

DB 2013: Malaysia substantially reduced the number of days it takes to register property transfers.

DB 2011: Malaysia’s introduction of online stamping reduced the time and cost to transfer property.

Maldives

DB 2011: Maldives now allows registered companies to own land as long as all company shares are owned by Maldivians.

Mali

DB 2011: Mali eased property transfers by reducing the property transfer tax for firms from 15% of the property value to 7%.

DB 2008: Mali reduced the time required to register property by decentralizing and reorganizing registry operations and reassigning staff.

Malta

DB 2016: Malta made the transfer of a property more expensive by introducing the new property transfer tax.

Mauritania

DB 2018: Mauritania made registering property easier by increasing the transparency of the land registry.

Mauritius

DB 2018: Mauritius made it easier to transfer property by eliminating the transfer tax and registration duty, implementing a complaint mechanism and publishing service standards.

DB 2017: Mauritius made registering property easier by digitizing its land records.

DB 2013: Mauritius made property transfers faster by implementing an electronic information management system at the Registrar-General’s Department.

DB 2010: Mauritius made registering property easier by setting a statutory time limit of 15 days for issuance of the final property title by the land registry.

DB 2009: Mauritius made transferring property easier by abolishing 2 procedures previously required—obtaining a clearance certificate from the Waste Water Authority and obtaining a tax clearance certificate for municipal taxes.

DB 2008: Mauritius made registering property less costly by reducing the property registration fee.

Mexico

DB 2018: Mexico (Monterrey) made registering property more expensive by increasing the municipal property transfer tax.

DB 2017: Mexico made registering property easier by digitizing its land records, improving the quality of the Land Registry infrastructure and making the registration process more efficient.

DB 2008: Mexico issued a new notary fee schedule that reduced the cost of registering property.

Moldova

DB 2010: Moldova made registering property easier and less time consuming by eliminating the requirement for a cadastral sketch.

Montenegro

DB 2014: Montenegro made registering property easier by introducing a notary system.

Morocco

DB 2018: Morocco made registering property more expensive by increasing registration fees.

DB 2017: Morocco made registering property easier by streamlining the property registration process.

DB 2016: Morocco made property transfers faster by establishing electronic communication links between different tax authorities.

DB 2014: Morocco made transferring property easier by reducing the time required to register a deed of transfer at the tax authority.

DB 2013: Morocco made registering property more costly by increasing property registration fees.

DB 2008: Morocco made registering property more complicated by implementing a requirement to check several tax agencies—rather than just one—in order to obtain a tax clearance certificate.

Mozambique

DB 2015: Mozambique made registering property easier by streamlining procedures at the land registry and municipality.

Myanmar

DB 2018: Myanmar made registering property less costly by reducing the stamp duty.

Namibia

DB 2014: Namibia made transferring property more expensive by increasing the transfer and stamp duties.

DB 2013: Namibia made transferring property more difficult by requiring conveyancers to obtain a building compliance certificate beforehand.

DB 2012: Namibia made transferring property more expensive for companies.

Nepal

DB 2010: Nepal made transferring property easier by reducing the registration fee.

Netherlands

DB 2014: The Netherlands made transferring property easier by increasing the efficiency of the title search process.

Nicaragua

DB 2012: Nicaragua made transferring property more efficient by introducing a fast-track procedure for registration.

Niger

DB 2018: Niger made registering property easier by lowering the costs of transferring property.

DB 2014: Niger made transferring property easier by reducing the registration fees.

DB 2008: Niger made property registration faster and less costly by streamlining the process at the Direction des Domaines and reducing the registration tax.

Nigeria

DB 2018: Nigeria, Lagos made transferring property easier and more transparent by removing the sworn affidavit for certified copies of the land ownership records, introducing a specific and independent complaint mechanism, and by publishing statistics on land transfers. Nigeria, Kano made transferring property more transparent by publishing the list documents, fee schedule and service standards for property transactions.

DB 2016: Nigeria made transferring property in Lagos less costly by reducing fees for property transactions.

Pakistan

DB 2018: Pakistan, Karachi improved the transparency of the land registration process by publishing online the fee schedule and the list of documents necessary to complete any property registration.

DB 2017: Pakistan improved the quality of land administration by digitizing ownership and land records. This reform applies to Lahore.

DB 2011: Pakistan made property transfer more affordable by reducing the stamp duty rate.

DB 2008: Pakistan made registering property more expensive by increasing the capital value tax.

Panama

DB 2014: Panama made transferring property easier by connecting the land registry with the cadastre.

DB 2013: Panama made property transfers faster by increasing working hours at the registry and reorganizing the caseload of its staff.

DB 2011: Panama made it more expensive to transfer property by requiring that an amount equal to 3% of the property value be paid upon registration.

DB 2010: Panama reduced the time required to transfer property by making it possible to obtain the certificate of good standing from the tax agency online.

Peru

DB 2011: Peru introduced fast-track procedures at the land registry, cutting by half the time needed to register property.

DB 2010: Peru made registering property easier through faster electronic processing times and through an internet connection between the tax agency and notaries facilitating the payment of municipal taxes.

Poland

DB 2015: Poland made transferring property easier by introducing online procedures and reducing notary fees.

DB 2013: Poland made property registration faster by introducing a new caseload management system for the land and mortgage registries and by continuing to digitize the records of the registries.

DB 2011: Poland eased property registration by computerizing its land registry.

DB 2008: Poland made registering property less costly by switching from variable registration fees to a fixed fee schedule.

Portugal

DB 2011: Portugal established a one-stop shop for property registration.

DB 2010: Portugal speeded up property registration through computerization at the registry backed by an amendment to the registry code making the use of notaries optional.

DB 2008: Portugal reduced the time required to register property through continued computerization of real estate registries in Lisbon.

Puerto Rico (U.S.)

DB 2017: Puerto Rico made registering property easier by digitizing its land records, improving the quality of infrastructure and transparency of its land administration system.

Qatar

DB 2017: Qatar made registering property easier by increasing the transparency at its land registry.

Romania

DB 2018: Romania improved the quality of land administration by digitizing ownership and land records.

DB 2010: Romania speeded up property registration by introducing expedited procedures at the land registry and the cadastre.

Russian Federation

DB 2018: The Russian Federation made it easier to transfer property by decreasing the time necessary to apply for state registration of title transfer. This reform applies to both Moscow and Saint Petersburg

DB 2016: Russia made transferring property easier by reducing the time required for property registration. This reform applies to both Moscow and St. Petersburg.

DB 2015: The Russian Federation made transferring property easier by eliminating the requirement for notarization and introducing tighter time limits for completing the property registration. This reform applies to both Moscow and St. Petersburg.

DB 2014: Russia made transferring property easier by streamlining procedures and implementing effective time limits for processing transfer applications.

DB 2012: Russia made registering property transfers easier by eliminating the requirement to obtain cadastral passports on land plots.

DB 2010: Russia reduced the time required to register property by introducing cadastral passports in place of the previously required inventory documents and cadastral maps.

Rwanda

DB 2018: Rwanda made registering property easier by implementing online services to facilitate the registration of property transfers.

DB 2017: Rwanda made it easier to register property by introducing effective time limits and increasing the transparency of the land administration system.

DB 2014: Rwanda made transferring property easier by eliminating the requirement to obtain a tax clearance certificate and by implementing the web-based Land Administration Information System for processing land transactions.

DB 2012: Rwanda made transferring property more expensive by enforcing the checking of the capital gains tax.

DB 2010: Rwanda reduced the time required to transfer property through ongoing improvements in the property registration process.

DB 2009: Rwanda reduced the cost and time to register property by replacing the 6% registration fee with a flat rate, regardless of the property value, and by creating a centralized service in the tax authority to speed up the issuance of the certificate of good standing.

Samoa

DB 2014: Samoa made transferring property more expensive by increasing the stamp duty.

DB 2011: Samoa shifted from a deed system to a title system and fully computerized its land registry, which reduced the time required to register property by 4 months.

San Marino

DB 2015: San Marino made transferring property easier by lowering the property registration tax rate.

São Tomé and Príncipe

DB 2012: São Tomé and Príncipe made registering property less costly by lowering property transfer taxes.

Saudi Arabia

DB 2018: Saudi Arabia improved the efficiency of its land administration system by implementing an online platform to check for ownership and encumbrances and by streamlining the property registration process. Additionally, Saudi Arabia made registering property easier by improving the land administration system’s dispute resolution mechanisms.

DB 2016: Saudi Arabia made property transfers faster by introducing a new computerized system at the land registry.

DB 2009: Saudi Arabia made property registration faster and easier by adopting a comprehensive electronic system for registering title deeds.

Senegal

DB 2018: Senegal made registering property easier by lowering the costs of transferring property and by reducing the time to transfer and registering property.

DB 2017: Senegal made registering property easier by increasing the transparency at its land registry and cadastre.

DB 2016: Senegal made transferring property less costly by lowering the property transfer tax.

DB 2015: Senegal made it easier to transfer property by replacing the authorization from the tax authority with a notification and setting up a single step at the land registry.

DB 2014: Senegal made transferring property easier by reducing the property transfer tax.

DB 2009: Senegal reduced the time needed to transfer property by introducing time limits at the land registry—for issuing registry certificates and registering property—and at the Directorate of Taxes and Property.

Serbia

DB 2018: Serbia improved the reliability of its land administration system by implementing a geographic information system.

DB 2017: Serbia simplified property transfer process by introducing effective time limits.

DB 2015: Serbia made transferring property more difficult by eliminating the expedited procedure for registering a property transfer.

DB 2012: Serbia made transferring property quicker by offering an expedited option.

DB 2009: Serbia reduced the cost to transfer property by lowering the property transfer tax.

Seychelles

DB 2018: The Seychelles improved the quality of its land administration system by digitizing its maps and introducing a complaint mechanism.

Sierra Leone

DB 2015: Sierra Leone made registering property easier by introducing a fast-track procedure.

DB 2013: Sierra Leone made registering property easier by computerizing the Ministry of Lands, Country Planning and the Environment.

DB 2011: Sierra Leone lifted a moratorium on sales of privately owned properties.

DB 2010: Sierra Leone made transferring property more difficult by reinstating a moratorium on the authorization of property transfers by the director of surveys and lands.

DB 2009: Sierra Leone reduced the time needed to transfer property by lifting a ban on obtaining the director of survey’s signature on the cadastral map—a ban that had been imposed to prevent a common scam in which the same property would be sold several times over to different people.

Singapore

DB 2017: Singapore made it easier to transfer a property by introducing an independent mechanism for reporting errors on titles and maps.

DB 2014: Singapore made transferring property easier by introducing an online procedure for property transfers.

DB 2010: Singapore made registering property easier by upgrading electronic systems and streamlining the administrative procedures of the government agencies involved.

Slovenia

DB 2012: Slovenia made transferring property easier and less costly by introducing online procedures and reducing fees.

DB 2011: Greater computerization in Slovenia’s land registry reduced delays in property registration by 75%.

Solomon Islands

DB 2012: The Solomon Islands made registering property faster by separating the land registry from the business and movable property registries.

South Africa

DB 2017: South Africa made it more expensive to transfer property by increasing the property transfer tax.

DB 2012: South Africa made transferring property less costly and more efficient by reducing the transfer duty and introducing electronic filing.

Spain

DB 2015: Spain made transferring property easier by reducing the property transfer tax rate.

Sri Lanka

DB 2013: Sri Lanka made registering property faster by introducing an electronic system at the Land Registry in Colombo.

St. Kitts and Nevis

DB 2017: Saint Kitts and Nevis made it more difficult to transfer property due to work overload at the Supreme Court Registry while also reducing the stamp duty for transferring real estate.

Suriname

DB 2018: Suriname made transferring property more transparent by publishing the list of documents and fee schedules offered at the agency in charge of land registration and cadaster.

DB 2014: Suriname made transferring property easier by increasing administrative efficiency at the land registry.

DB 2010: Suriname increased the cost, time and number of procedures to register property by implementing new valuation requirements to ensure proper tax payments at the land registry.

Swaziland

DB 2012: Swaziland made transferring property quicker by streamlining the process at the land registry.

Sweden

DB 2017: Sweden made it easier to transfer a property by increasing administrative efficiency and introducing an independent and separate mechanism for reporting errors on maps.

DB 2015: Sweden made registering property easier by fully implementing a new system for property registration.

DB 2013: In Sweden property transfers became more time consuming during implementation of a new information technology system at the land registry.

DB 2012: Sweden increased the cost of transferring property between companies.

DB 2011: Sweden made registering property easier by eliminating the requirement to obtain a preemption waiver from the municipality

Switzerland

DB 2016: Switzerland made transferring property easier by introducing a national database to check for encumbrances.

Syrian Arab Republic

DB 2017: Syria made registering property more complex by requiring a security clearance prior to transferring the property.

Tajikistan

DB 2018: Tajikistan made registering property easier by eliminating a procedure and reducing time as the registration of the sale-purchase agreement at the city government is no longer practiced. At the same time, fee increases raise the cost of transferring property.

DB 2010: Tajikistan made transferring property more costly by increasing the state duty for property transactions.

Tanzania

DB 2018: Tanzania made registering property more expensive by increasing the land and property registration fee.

Thailand

DB 2018: Thailand improved the reliability of its land administration system by implementing a geographic information system and by scanning maps for most of Bangkok.

DB 2012: Thailand made registering property more expensive by increasing the registration fee.

DB 2011: Thailand made registering property more costly by repealing a 2-year temporary tax reduction for property transfers.

DB 2009: Thailand reduced the cost to transfer property through provisional cuts in 2 taxes: the transfer fee and the specific business tax.

Togo

DB 2015: Togo made transferring property easier by lowering the property registration tax rate.

Tonga

DB 2012: Tonga made transferring property more costly.

Trinidad and Tobago

DB 2013: In Trinidad and Tobago property transfers became faster thanks to speedier issuance of clearance certificates by the Water and Sewerage Authority.

Tunisia

DB 2008: Tunisia reduced the time needed to register property by computerizing property registry files.

Turkey

DB 2018: Turkey made registering property easier by lowering the costs of transferring property.

DB 2014: Turkey made transferring property more costly by increasing the registration and several other fees.

Uganda

DB 2014: Uganda made transferring property easier by eliminating the need to have instruments of land transfer physically embossed to certify payment of the stamp duty.

DB 2013: Uganda made transferring property more difficult by introducing a requirement for property purchasers to obtain an income tax certificate before registration, resulting in delays at the Uganda Revenue Authority and the Ministry of Finance. At the same time, Uganda made it easier by digitizing records at the title registry, increasing efficiency at the assessor’s office and making it possible for more banks to accept the stamp duty payment.

DB 2012: Uganda increased the efficiency of property transfers by establishing performance standards and recruiting more officials at the land office.

Ukraine

DB 2014: Ukraine made transferring property easier by streamlining procedures and revamping the property registration system.

DB 2013: Ukraine made property transfers faster by introducing an effective time limit for processing transfer applications at the land cadastre in Kiev.

United Arab Emirates

DB 2017: The United Arab Emirates made registering property easier by increasing the transparency at its land registry.

DB 2015: The United Arab Emirates made transferring property easier by introducing new service centers and a standard contract for property transactions.

DB 2014: The United Arab Emirates made transferring property easier by increasing the operating hours of the land registry and reducing transfer fees.

United Kingdom

DB 2014: The United Kingdom made transferring property easier by introducing electronic lodgment for property transfer applications.

DB 2010: The United Kingdom speeded up property registration by introducing automatic electronic processing of the land transaction return.

Uruguay

DB 2016: Uruguay made registering property more difficult by requiring by law a certificate of connection of the property to the public sewage system to complete the process of transferring and registering property.

DB 2011: In Uruguay the Municipality of Montevideo made registering property easier by eliminating the need to obtain a mandatory waiver for preemption rights.

DB 2010: Uruguay made transferring property more difficult through a new law giving preemption rights to the Municipality of Montevideo and thus adding a procedure—though at the same time it made transferring property easier through new online procedures.

Uzbekistan

DB 2017: Uzbekistan made transferring a property easier by increasing transparency of information.

DB 2016: Uzbekistan made transferring property easier by eliminating the requirement to provide several different nonencumbrance certificates, though it also increased the costs associated with property transfers.

DB 2014: Uzbekistan made transferring property easier by reducing the notary fees.

DB 2008: Uzbekistan made registering property easier and less costly by introducing a formula for calculating the fee to notarize a property sale agreement that takes into account the minimum wage.

Vanuatu

DB 2016: Vanuatu improved the quality of land administration by appointing a land ombudsman to deal with complaints relating to the land registry.

DB 2015: Vanuatu made property transfers faster by digitizing its land registry system and hiring and training new staff.

DB 2012: Vanuatu made registering property easier by computerizing the land registry.

DB 2008: Vanuatu made registering property more expensive by increasing the registration fees for the deed of transfer at the Department of Lands Records.

Venezuela, RB

DB 2008: República Bolivariana de Venezuela reduced the time needed for registering property by implementing time limits at several agencies.

West Bank and Gaza

DB 2013: West Bank and Gaza made transferring property more costly by increasing the property transfer fee.

DB 2010: West Bank and Gaza reduced the time required for registering property by completing a major project to computerize records at the land registry.

Zambia

DB 2017: Zambia made it more affordable to transfer property by decreasing the property

DB 2015: Zambia made transferring property more difficult by increasing the property transfer tax rate.

DB 2012: Zambia made registering property more costly by increasing the property transfer tax rate.

DB 2009: Zambia reduced the time required to register property by computerizing its land registry and by setting up a customer service center to eliminate the backlog of registration requests.

Zimbabwe

DB 2017: Zimbabwe made registering property easier by launching an official website containing information on the list of documents and fees for completing a property transaction, as well as, a specific time frame for delivering a legally binding document that proves property ownership.

DB 2010: Zimbabwe made transferring property less costly by introducing a new policy on the capital gains tax that resulted in a reduction in the actual amount paid.

DB 2008: Zimbabwe made registering property more expensive by increasing the conveyancers’ fees.