Economy Characteristics

Doing Business uses a number of variables to characterize a country. Among them:

Gross national income (GNI) per capita

Doing Business 2016 reports 2014 income per capita as published in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators 2015 . Income is calculated using the Atlas method (in current U.S. dollars). For cost indicators expressed as a percentage of income per capita, 2014 gross national income (GNI) per capita in current U.S. dollars is used as the denominator. GNI data based on the Atlas method were not available for Austria; Bahrain; Barbados; Belize; Brunei Darussalam; the Czech Republic; Djibouti; Finland; the Islamic Republic of Iran; Jamaica; Kuwait; Luxembourg; Malta; the Marshall Islands; the Federated States of Micronesia; New Zealand; Oman; Papua New Guinea; Puerto Rico (territory of the United States); San Marino; Saudi Arabia; the Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Suriname; Switzerland; the Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, China; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Vanuatu; West Bank and Gaza; and the Republic of Yemen. In these cases GDP or GNP per capita data and growth rates from other sources, such as the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook database and the Economist Intelligence Unit, were used.

Region and income group

Doing Business uses the World Bank regional and income group classifications.

Regional averages presented in figures and tables in the Doing Business report include economies from all income groups (low, lower middle, upper middle and high income), though high-income OECD economies are assigned the “regional” classification OECD high income.


2016 reports midyear 2014 population statistics as published in World Development Indicators 2015.

Additional development data and statistics are available from the World Bank. For main Doing Business indicators by economy, click on the economy name.

East Asia & Pacific----9570.2----
Europe & Central Asia----9763.4----
Latin America & Caribbean----8864.8----
Middle East & North Africa----16511.5----
OECD high income----42328.7----
South Asia----2323.8----
Sub-Saharan Africa----2419.8----

AfghanistanSouth AsiaLow income68031,280,518Kabul
AlbaniaEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income4,4602,894,475Tirana
AlgeriaMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle income5,34039,928,947Algiers
AngolaSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle income5,30022,137,261Luanda
Antigua and BarbudaLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income13,36090,903St. John's
ArgentinaLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income14,56041,803,125Buenos Aires (Ciudad autonoma de)
ArmeniaEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income3,8102,983,990Yerevan
AustraliaOECD high incomeHigh income64,68023,490,736Sydney
AustriaOECD high incomeHigh income49,3668,534,492Vienna
AzerbaijanEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income7,5909,537,823Baku
Bahamas, TheLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income21,010382,571Nassau
BahrainMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income28,2721,344,111Manama
BangladeshSouth AsiaLower middle income1,080158,512,570Dhaka, Chittagong
BarbadosLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income15,579286,066Bridgetown
BelarusEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income7,3409,470,000Minsk
BelgiumOECD high incomeHigh income47,03011,225,207Brussels
BelizeLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income4,760339,758Belize City
BeninSub-Saharan AfricaLow income81010,599,510Cotonou
BhutanSouth AsiaLower middle income2,390765,552Thimphu
BoliviaLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle income2,83010,847,664La Paz
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income4,7703,824,746Sarajevo
BotswanaSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle income7,8802,038,587Gaborone
BrazilLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income11,760202,033,670São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro
Brunei DarussalamEast Asia & PacificHigh income36,607423,205Bandar Seri Begawan
BulgariaEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income7,4207,226,291Sofia
Burkina FasoSub-Saharan AfricaLow income71017,419,615Ouagadougou
BurundiSub-Saharan AfricaLow income27010,482,752Bujumbura
Cabo VerdeSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income3,520503,637Praia
CambodiaEast Asia & PacificLow income1,01015,408,270Phnom Penh
CameroonSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,35022,818,632Douala
CanadaOECD high incomeHigh income51,69035,540,419Toronto
Central African RepublicSub-Saharan AfricaLow income3304,709,203Bangui
ChadSub-Saharan AfricaLow income1,01013,211,146N’Djamena
ChileOECD high incomeHigh income14,90017,772,871Santiago
ChinaEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income7,3801,364,270,000Shanghai, Beijing
ColombiaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income7,78048,929,706Bogota
ComorosSub-Saharan AfricaLow income840752,438Moroni
Congo, Dem. Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaLow income41069,360,118Kinshasa
Congo, Rep.Sub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income2,6804,558,594Brazzaville
Costa RicaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income9,7504,937,755San José
Côte d'IvoireSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,55020,804,774Abidjan
CroatiaEurope & Central AsiaHigh income13,0204,236,400Zagreb
CyprusEurope & Central AsiaHigh income26,3701,153,058Nicosia
Czech RepublicOECD high incomeHigh income17,79510,510,566Prague
DenmarkOECD high incomeHigh income61,3105,639,565Copenhagen
DjiboutiMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle income1,692886,313Djibouti Ville
DominicaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income7,07072,341Roseau
Dominican RepublicLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income5,95010,528,954Santo Domingo
EcuadorLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income6,04015,982,551Quito
Egypt, Arab Rep.Middle East & North AfricaLower middle income3,28083,386,739Cairo
El SalvadorLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle income3,7806,383,752San Salvador
Equatorial GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaHigh income13,340778,061Malabo
EritreaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income5306,536,176Asmara
EstoniaOECD high incomeHigh income18,5301,313,645Tallinn
EthiopiaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income55096,506,031Addis Ababa
FijiEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income4,540887,027Suva
FinlandOECD high incomeHigh income47,3805,463,596Helsinki
FranceOECD high incomeHigh income43,08066,201,365Paris
GabonSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle income9,3201,711,294Libreville
Gambia, TheSub-Saharan AfricaLow income4501,908,954Banjul
GeorgiaEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income3,7204,504,100Tbilisi
GermanyOECD high incomeHigh income47,64080,889,505Berlin
GhanaSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,62026,442,178Accra
GreeceOECD high incomeHigh income22,09010,957,740Athens
GrenadaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income7,850106,303St. George's
GuatemalaLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle income3,44015,859,714Guatemala City
GuineaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income48012,043,898Conakry
Guinea-BissauSub-Saharan AfricaLow income5701,745,798Bissau
GuyanaLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle income3,970803,677Georgetown
HaitiLatin America & CaribbeanLow income83010,461,409Port au Prince
HondurasLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle income2,1908,260,749Tegucigalpa
Hong Kong SAR, ChinaEast Asia & PacificHigh income40,3207,241,700Hong Kong
HungaryOECD high incomeHigh income13,4709,861,673Budapest
IcelandOECD high incomeHigh income47,640327,589Reykjavik
IndiaSouth AsiaLower middle income1,6101,267,401,849Mumbai, Delhi
IndonesiaEast Asia & PacificLower middle income3,650252,812,245Jakarta, Surabaya
Iran, Islamic Rep.Middle East & North AfricaUpper middle income6,06378,470,222Tehran
IraqMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle income6,41034,278,364Baghdad
IrelandOECD high incomeHigh income44,6604,612,719Dublin
IsraelOECD high incomeHigh income34,9908,215,300Tel Aviv
ItalyOECD high incomeHigh income34,28061,336,387Rome
JamaicaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income5,0422,721,252Kingston
JapanOECD high incomeHigh income42,000127,131,800Tokyo, Osaka
JordanMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle income5,1606,607,000Amman
KazakhstanEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income11,67017,289,111Almaty
KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,28045,545,980Nairobi
KiribatiEast Asia & PacificLower middle income2,280103,942Tarawa
Korea, Rep.OECD high incomeHigh income27,09050,423,955Seoul
KosovoEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income4,0001,823,149Pristina
KuwaitMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income43,1033,479,371Kuwait City
Kyrgyz RepublicEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income1,2505,834,200Bishkek
Lao PDREast Asia & PacificLower middle income1,6006,894,098Vientiane
LatviaEurope & Central AsiaHigh income15,6601,990,351Riga
LebanonMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle income9,8804,510,301Beirut
LesothoSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,3502,097,511Maseru
LiberiaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income4004,396,873Monrovia
LibyaMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle income7,9206,253,452Tripoli
LithuaniaEurope & Central AsiaHigh income15,3802,929,323Vilnius
LuxembourgOECD high incomeHigh income72,728556,074Luxembourg
Macedonia, FYREurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income5,0702,108,434Skopje
MadagascarSub-Saharan AfricaLow income44023,571,962Antananarivo
MalawiSub-Saharan AfricaLow income25016,829,144Blantyre
MalaysiaEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income10,66030,187,896Kuala Lumpur
MaldivesSouth AsiaUpper middle income7,290351,572Malé
MaliSub-Saharan AfricaLow income72015,768,227Bamako
MaltaMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income21,869427,404Valletta
Marshall IslandsEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income4,16152,772Majuro
MauritaniaSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,2603,984,457Nouakchott
MauritiusSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle income9,7101,260,934Port Louis
MexicoLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income9,980123,799,215Mexico City, Monterrey
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.East Asia & PacificLower middle income3,438103,903Island of Pohnpei (Palikir/Kolonia)
MoldovaEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income2,5503,556,400Chisinau
MongoliaEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income4,3202,881,415Ulan Bator
MontenegroEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income7,240621,800Podgorica
MoroccoMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle income3,02033,492,909Casablanca
MozambiqueSub-Saharan AfricaLow income63026,472,977Maputo
MyanmarEast Asia & PacificLower middle income1,27053,718,958Yangon
NamibiaSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle income5,8202,347,988Windhoek
NepalSouth AsiaLow income73028,120,740Kathmandu
NetherlandsOECD high incomeHigh income51,21016,854,183Amsterdam
New ZealandOECD high incomeHigh income43,8374,509,700Auckland
NicaraguaLatin America & CaribbeanLower middle income1,8306,169,269Managua
NigerSub-Saharan AfricaLow income43018,534,802Niamey
NigeriaSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income2,950178,516,904Lagos, Kano
NorwayOECD high incomeHigh income103,0505,136,475Oslo
OmanMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income19,0023,926,492Muscat
PakistanSouth AsiaLower middle income1,410185,132,926Karachi, Lahore
PalauEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income11,11021,097Koror
PanamaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income10,9703,926,017Panama City
Papua New GuineaEast Asia & PacificLower middle income2,0437,476,108Port Moresby
ParaguayLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income4,1506,917,579Asuncion
PeruLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income6,41030,769,077Lima
PhilippinesEast Asia & PacificLower middle income3,440100,096,496Quezon city
PolandOECD high incomeHigh income13,73037,995,529Warsaw
PortugalOECD high incomeHigh income21,32010,397,393Lisbon
Puerto Rico (U.S.)Latin America & CaribbeanHigh income19,2103,548,397San Juan
QatarMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income90,4202,267,916Doha
RomaniaEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income9,37019,910,995Bucharest
Russian FederationEurope & Central AsiaHigh income13,210143,819,569Moscow, Saint Petersburg
RwandaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income65012,100,049Kigali
SamoaEast Asia & PacificLower middle income4,050191,831Apia
San MarinoEurope & Central AsiaHigh income56,80631,637San Marino
São Tomé and PríncipeSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,570197,882São Tomé
Saudi ArabiaMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income25,81829,369,428Riyadh
SenegalSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,05014,548,171Dakar
SerbiaEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income5,8207,129,428Belgrade
SeychellesSub-Saharan AfricaHigh income13,99091,526Victoria
Sierra LeoneSub-Saharan AfricaLow income7206,205,382Freetown
SingaporeEast Asia & PacificHigh income55,1505,469,700Singapore
Slovak RepublicOECD high incomeHigh income17,7655,418,506Bratislava
SloveniaOECD high incomeHigh income23,4362,062,218Ljubljana
Solomon IslandsEast Asia & PacificLower middle income1,830572,865Honiara
South AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaUpper middle income6,80054,001,953Johannesburg
South SudanSub-Saharan AfricaLow income96011,738,718Juba
SpainOECD high incomeHigh income29,54246,404,602Madrid
Sri LankaSouth AsiaLower middle income3,40020,639,000Colombo
St. Kitts and NevisLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income14,54054,789Basseterre
St. LuciaLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income7,090183,598Castries
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income6,560109,371Kingstown
SudanSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,74038,764,090Khartoum
SurinameLatin America & CaribbeanUpper middle income9,640543,925Paramaribo
SwazilandSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income2,7001,267,704Mbabane
SwedenOECD high incomeHigh income61,6009,689,555Stockholm
SwitzerlandOECD high incomeHigh income88,7908,190,229Zurich
Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle income1,92523,300,738Damascus
Taiwan, ChinaEast Asia & PacificHigh income22,59823,434,000Taipei
TajikistanEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income1,0608,408,947Dushanbe
TanzaniaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income93050,757,459Dar es Salaam
ThailandEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income5,41067,222,972Bangkok
Timor-LesteEast Asia & PacificLower middle income3,1201,212,107Dili
TogoSub-Saharan AfricaLow income5806,993,244Lomé
TongaEast Asia & PacificUpper middle income4,280105,782Nukualofa
Trinidad and TobagoLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income16,5621,344,235Port of Spain
TunisiaMiddle East & North AfricaUpper middle income4,45910,996,600Tunis
TurkeyEurope & Central AsiaUpper middle income10,85075,837,020Istanbul
UgandaSub-Saharan AfricaLow income66038,844,624Kampala
UkraineEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income3,56045,362,900Kiev
United Arab EmiratesMiddle East & North AfricaHigh income43,4809,445,624Dubai
United KingdomOECD high incomeHigh income42,69064,510,376London
United StatesOECD high incomeHigh income55,200318,857,056New York City, Los Angeles
UruguayLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income16,3603,418,694Montevideo
UzbekistanEurope & Central AsiaLower middle income2,09030,742,500Tashkent
VanuatuEast Asia & PacificLower middle income3,097258,301Port Vila
Venezuela, RBLatin America & CaribbeanHigh income12,82030,851,343Caracas
VietnamEast Asia & PacificLower middle income1,89090,730,000Ho Chi Minh City
West Bank and GazaMiddle East & North AfricaLower middle income1,7354,294,682Ramallah
Yemen, Rep.Middle East & North AfricaLower middle income1,38124,968,508Sanaa
ZambiaSub-Saharan AfricaLower middle income1,76015,021,002Lusaka
ZimbabweSub-Saharan AfricaLow income86014,599,325Harare