Economy Characteristics

Doing Business uses a number of variables to characterize a country. Among them:

Gross national income (GNI) per capita

Doing Business 2017 reports 2015 income per capita as published in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators as of July 11, 2016Income is calculated using the Atlas method (in current U.S. dollars). For cost indicators expressed as a percentage of income per capita, 2015 gross national income (GNI) per capita in current U.S. dollars is used as the denominator. GNI data based on the Atlas method were not available for Argentina; Brunei Darussalam; the Comoros; Djibouti; Eritrea; The Gambia; the Islamic Republic of Iran; Lesotho; Malta; the Marshall Islands; Mauritania; the Federated States of Micronesia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Puerto Rico (territory of the United States); San Marino; São Tomé and Príncipe; Somalia; the Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, China; Tonga; Vanuatu; República Bolivariana de Venezuela; West Bank and Gaza; the Republic of Yemen. In these cases GDP or GNP per capita data and growth rates from other sources, such as the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook database and the Economist Intelligence Unit, were used.

Region and income group

Doing Business uses the World Bank regional and income group classifications. Regional averages presented in figures and tables in the Doing Business report include economies from all income groups (low, lower middle, upper middle and high income), though high-income OECD economies are assigned the “regional” classification OECD high income.


Doing Business 2017 reports midyear 2015 population statistics as published in World Development Indicators 2016.

Additional development data and statistics are available from the World Bank. For main Doing Business indicators by economy, click on the economy name.