Dealing with Construction Permits in


Below is a detailed summary of the procedures, time and costs to build a warehouse in Turkey. This includes obtaining necessary licenses and permits, completing required notifications and inspections and obtaining utility connections.

This information was collected as part of the Doing Business project, which measures and compares regulations relevant to the life cycle of a small- to medium-sized domestic business in 189 economies. The most recent round of data collection was completed in June 2014. Read the methodology.

The indicator set on dealing with construction permits will be expanded in Doing Business 2016 to include an index that will measure good practices in construction regulation and assess the quality control and safety mechanisms in place for an economy’s construction permitting system, as well as the quality of the building regulations. This new index will become a component indicator of the ranking on dealing with construction permits. The new data were collected for 170 economies in 2014 and is available under the “Methodology Expansion” tab, below. The data are preliminary and do not have any impact on the Ease of Doing Business 2015 rankings. This data may differ from what will be published in Doing Business 2016.

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  • Estimated cost of construction: TRY 1,029,931
  • City: Istanbul
No. Procedure Time to Complete Associated Costs
1 Obtain zoning plan (Imar Durumu)
Agency: District Municipality - Planning Department

BuildCo applies to the District Municipality - Planning Department for a 1:1000 scaled zoning plan which is already prepared and approved by the greater municipality. The plan shows the construction conditions of land such as the gross floor area ratio, footprint area ratio, and the function (e.g. commercial, residential, office, etc.)

According to annual indexation of official fees for issuing the lot plan, the official fee schedule is as follows:

1 -- 1,000 sq. m.: 333 TRY
1,001 -- 3,000 sq. m.: 498 TRY
3,001 -- 5,000 sq. m.: 710 TRY
5,001 -- 10,000 sq. m.: 862 TRY
10,001 -- 20,000 sq. m.: 937 TRY
20,001 -- 50,000 sq. m.: 1,073 TRY
50,001 -- 100,000 sq. m.: 1,284 TRY
100,001 -- 200,000 sq. m.: 1,587 TRY
200,001 -- 500,000 sq. m.: 2,569 TRY

The fee applied for the BuildCo case is TRY 333, which is then multiplied by a ratio based on the actual location of the warehouse. The ratio for Istanbul is 1.14. Therefore, the total fee is calculated as follows: TRY 333 * 1.14 = TRY 379.6
4 days TRY 380
2 Obtain cadastral plan (Aplikasyon Krokisi)
Agency: District Cadastral Office

BuildCo submits an application to the Cadastral Plan Branch of the relevant municipality, along with the lot plan, and obtains the Cadastral Plan Document. The cadastral plan states the corner coordinations of the plot, the status of adjacent plots, and the surface area of the plot.
3 days no charge
3 Obtain construction direction plan (Insaat Istikamet Rolevesi) and elevation of cross section (Kot Kesit Belgesi)
Agency: District Municipality - Planning Department

BuildCo must apply for a construction direction plan and elevation of cross section at the district municipality with the documents obtained in the previous procedures. The technicians set all the necessary levels -- road, entrance, plot, building corners, etc. -- to be the basis for the design process of the works that will follow, and issue a construction direction plan and elevation of cross section. The construction direction plan includes stated directions on the land, distances from neighboring plots, and the building corners. The elevation of cross section identifies stated elevations of the corners of the plot, the necessary levels and elevations of the current land and elevations of the road.

The fee for these plans is as follows:

1 -- 100 sq. m.: 1 TRY / sq. m.
101 -- 500 sq. m.: 0.9 TRY / sq. m.
Over 501 sq. m.: 0.6 TRY / sq. m.
5 days TRY 557
4 Hire an independent building inspector
Agency: Private Building Inspection Agency

The company must select an independent building inspector and sign a service contract with this inspector. The inspector must check and approve all the project’s plans before they are submitted to the municipality. The list of project plans is extensive and includes the architectural design of the building done by design consultants; the reinforced concrete and insulation project plans prepared by a civil engineer; the fire safety project plans prepared jointly by an architect and the mechanical engineer for utilities; the project plans and documents for hot water, and those of central heating facilities prepared by a mechanical engineer; the electrical wiring project plans prepared by an electrical engineer; the telecommunications system project plans prepared by an electrical engineer; and the landscape project plans prepared by a landscape engineer.

Selecting an independent building consultant takes only a day. However, practitioners agree that it takes at least 3 days for the building inspector to review and approve all the documents before they are submitted to the municipality. Hence, for the case considered here, it is assumed that 4 days are needed to complete this procedure.

The building inspector charges a fee of 1.5% of the total cost of construction, according to the amendment of Article 5 of the Law on Building Inspection No. 4708 of August 17, 2011. This fee is paid in six installments.

The inspector receives the following payments at the following stages:

• 10% when the building permit is obtained
• 10% when the foundation is completed
• 40% when the static structure is completed
• 20% when the detailed works are completed
• 15% when the mechanical and electricity system are completed
• 5% when the construction completion minute is approved by the municipality

However, for the case considered here, it is assumed that any interaction with the independent building inspector is an internal process within BuildCo. Hence, the phased-out payment is included in this procedure as a one lump sum, for methodological reasons.
4 days TRY 15,449
5 Obtain approval from the Fire Department
Agency: Fire Department, Istanbul Municipality

BuildCo must apply for fire facilities approval to the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Fire Brigade.
2 days no charge
6 Obtain approval of architectural drawings from the municipality
Agency: District Municipality

The company must submit the documents listed below along with the architectural drawings to the project branch of the municipality:

• The authorization document of the architect
• The plan for the application
• The cadastral plan document
• The road datum document
• The title deed registration document
• The plot share distribution table, if there is more than one independent section on the land (for instance, an apartment building)
• Built-up area breakdown table in square meters
• Ratified geological study
• Three sets of the elevator preliminary report (not applicable in the warehouse case)

The municipality must approve the project’s proposed designs. The fire safety project should also be submitted to the municipality for approval and can be included in this procedure.
If the municipality asks for changes to be made to the architectural designs during the approval process, these changes should be reflected in the engineering and landscaping projects as well. For final approval, these project plans are submitted to the municipal project branch, for static, sanitation facility, heating and heat insulation, and landscaping project plans to the Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation (TEDAS), for the electricity project plans; and to the telephone company, for the telecommunication project plans. Fire-electricity and fire-mechanical project plans must be approved by the Fire Department.

Article 22 of the Land Development Law establishes a 30-day statutory time limit for this procedure. Although in some cases the approval may be granted within 7 days, practitioners agree that most cases require the full 30 days allowed by law.

The cost estimated for this procedure ranges from TRY 3,000.00 to TRY 3,500.00. The fees found on one district municipality’s Web site show the cost breakdown to include fees for examination, approval, and various other taxes (e.g., sign posts, trees).
30 days TRY 3,500
7 Obtain proof of payment and clearance of water and sewerage infrastructure
Agency: Water and Sewerage Department (Istanbul Municipality)

The company contacts the water and sewerage department to pay the fees and participation share in the cost of the water and sewerage infrastructure. A clearance document is obtained, that shows that complete payment was made.
21 days TRY 1,208
8 Receive foundation registration number from the Social Security Institution
Agency: Social Security Institution

The company must register the staff that will be working at the construction site with the Social Security Institution.
1 day no charge
9 Obtain building permit
Agency: District Municipality, Licensing Branch

The company requests a building permit from the licensing branch of the municipality. The approved design, engineering drawings, and other necessary documents (described in the previous procedures) must be attached to this request. The company must pay the fees before receiving the building permit and starting foundation work.

The fee schedule is as follows:

1-25 sq. m.: 3.00 TRY / sq. m
26-50 sq. m.: 4.50 TRY / sq. m
51-100 sq. m.: 6.00 TRY / sq. m
over 100 sq. m.: 7.5 TRY / sq. m

Building permits are usually issued 1 -- 2 months after submission of the application. The law provides for a statutory time limit of 30 days for the municipality issuing the permit. There are frequent complaints from applicants about not receiving the building permit within the specified time.

Following the building permit issuance, the municipal building control authority will randomly conduct inspections during the construction on site, in addition to private inspection.
30 days TRY 9,755
10 Obtain proof of tax payment
Agency: Tax Department

The company must pay all taxes owed, and obtain a tax clearance document from the appropriate tax departments. This document states that all taxes owed have been paid.
1 day no charge
11 Receive final inspection from the Fire Department
Agency: Fire Department, Istanbul Municipality

The updated fee schedule for the final inspection from the fire department is as follows:

• Group 1 buildings: exempted
• Group 2 buildings: TRY 0.58 per sq. m.
• Group 3 buildings: TRY 0.95 per sq. m.
• Group 4 buildings: TRY 1.81 per sq. m.
• Group 5 buildings: TRY 2.20 per sq. m.
• Group 6 buildings: TRY 5.06 per sq. m.

According to the 2014 Fire Service Fees Schedule, BuildCo's warehouse would now fall into group 5 (factory buildings, hospitals, hotels, warehouses). Therefore, the applicable fee would be: 1,300.6 X 2.20 = TRY 2,861.32
1 day TRY 2,861
12 Submit final inspection report and receive final inspection from the municipality
Agency: District Municipality

Upon completion of construction, the private inspector must submit his final inspection report to the municipality before the municipality conducts its final inspection. The municipality will come to inspect the building after 5 days on average.
5 days no charge
13 Obtain occupancy permit
Agency: District Municipality

Land Development Law No. 3194 requires an occupancy permit for all new constructions. The company applies for the occupancy permit by submitting the following documents:

• The invoice for the building
• The building permit
• The built-up area breakdown table in square meters
• The original copy of the plot title deed
• The real estate tax declaration
• The real estate tax receipt

An authorized commission from the municipality inspects the building and verifies that it complies with the project. This commission then issues the occupancy permit.

The law specifies a statutory time limit of 30 days for the municipality to issue an occupancy permit. Practitioners observe that this statutory time limit is not frequently observed, and so, this process can take on average 2 months.
15 days TRY 2,000
* 14 Obtain proof of real estate tax payment
Agency: District Municipality

Real estate taxes must be submitted to the tax office within 3 months of receipt of the title deeds. The company must obtain a copy of the real estate tax form and a tax clearance statement from municipal accounting office.
10 days no charge
* 15 Change the title deed from a land title deed to a building title deed
Agency: Title Deed Department

The company must submit the following documents to the title deed department in order to register the building:

• The title deed
• The plot share distribution table
• The occupancy permit
• The cadastral survey pages

Registering the warehouse takes some time due to backlogs and long waiting times at the Land Registry. However, with connections at the Land Registry, the process may take as little as 3 days.

The fee is based on the area of the immovable property:

1-1,000 sq. m.: 202.00 TRY / sq. m.
1,001-3,000 sq. m.: 286.00 TRY / sq. m.
Greater than 3,001 sq. m.: 28.00 TRY for every additional 1,000 sq. m.
10 days TRY 286
16 Request water connection and permission for discharge of sewerage and rainwater
Agency: Istanbul Water Supply and Sewerage General Directorate (ISKI)

The company must request permission from the water and sewage department to discharge sewage and rainwater. The company can also request the water connection at the same time.
1 day no charge
17 Receive inspection from the water and sewerage department
Agency: Istanbul Water Supply and Sewerage General Directorate (ISKI)

Upon request of permission from the water and sewage department to discharge sewage and rainwater, the technicians from this department perform their inspections at the site and grant permission for connection of wastewater and rainwater to the system. The technicians from the same department also check that the canal connections comply with the approved design, upon request for a water connection. The technicians then issue a letter of approval for connection.
1 day no charge
18 Obtain water and sewage connection
Agency: Istanbul Water Supply and Sewerage General Directorate (ISKI)

45 days no charge
  * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.
Building code/regulations
Which requirements to obtain a building permit are clearly specified by the building regulations (including the building code), any regulations dealing with construction permits or any accessible website, brochure or pamphlet? List of required documents to submit; Fees to be paid; Required preapprovals by all relevant agencies
Where are the building regulations (including the building code) or any regulations dealing with construction permits accessible? Available online; Available free of charge at permit-issuing authority
Quality control before construction
Which entities are required to verify that the architectural plans/drawings for a private construction are in compliance with existing building regulations? National order of architects/engineers; Government agency
Who is part of the committee or team that reviews and approves building permit applications in the relevant permit-issuing agency? Licensed architect; Licensed engineer
Quality control during construction
What type of mandatory inspections (if any) are required by law to be carried out during construction? Inspections at certain stages of construction
Do legally mandated inspections occur in practice during construction? Mandatory inspections are done in practice.
Quality control after construction
Is there a final inspection required by law to verify that the building was built in accordance with the approved plans and existing building regulations or is a final report / sign-off required by a supervising engineer? Yes
Do legally mandated final inspections occur in practice? Final inspection is done in practice.
Liability/insurance regimes
Which parties (if any) are held liable by law for structural flaws/problems in the building once it is in usage? Architect or engineer; Professional or Agency in charge of the supervision; The construction company
Which parties (if any) are required to obtain an insurance policy to cover possible structural flaws/problems in the building once it is in usage? Legislation is silent on this issue.
Professional certification and controls
What are the qualification requirements for the architect or engineer in charge of verifying that the architectural plans/drawings are in compliance with existing building regulations? University degree in architecture or engineering; Be a registered architect or engineer
What are the qualification requirements for the professional who supervises the construction on the ground? University degree in engineering, construction or construction management; Be a registered architect or engineer

  Please send any comments and inputs on the data above to rru@worldbank.org

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