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local_shipping Trading across Borders

Doing Business records the time and cost associated with the logistical process of exporting and importing goods. Doing Business measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs) associated with three sets of procedures—documentary compliance, border compliance and domestic transport—within the overall process of exporting or importing a shipment of goods. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in June 2017. See the methodology for more information.

Given the importance of trade digitalization, in Doing Business 2018, the Trading across Borders questionnaire included research questions on the availability and status of implementation of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Single Window (SW) systems. With this information, Doing Business built a comprehensive dataset on the adoption and level of sophistication of electronic platforms in 190 economies. These data are not used to compute the distance to frontier score or ranking of the ease of doing business. The new dataset on EDI and SW systems is available here.

Doing Business Reforms

FACILITATING INTERNATIONAL TRADE

International trade is a cornerstone of economic development, as access to international markets is strongly correlated with economic growth (1). Although tariffs on exports and imports have fallen on average in recent decades, non-tariff measures have gained increasing prominence (2). Optimizing time and costs in the trade sector is strongly associated with trade growth, diversification and economic expansion (3). Accordingly, global trade policies have shifted their focus from tariffs to trade facilitation, including the elimination of trade-related transactions costs. Doing Business tracks global trade policies and reforms that facilitate trade by implementing cost-effective, time-efficient and transparent regulatory practices.

Of the 33 economies that undertook reforms making it easier to trade across borders in 2016/17, 22 improved their existing electronic systems for exports or imports, reducing the time of documentary and border compliance by more than 760 hours overall. More than half of this time savings is associated with the enhancement of existing electronic systems. Zambia reduced the time to complete documentary and border compliance by about 30%, underscoring the impact of roll out of the ASYCUDA World system, an automated customs data management system, to multiple customs offices nationwide. In 2017 Zambia increased the functionality of the platform, enabling the electronic submission of declarations, supporting documents and the online payment of customs fees. Following its upgrade from ASYCUDA to the Sistema Único de Modernización Aduanera (Single Customs Modernization System; SUMA), Bolivia has enabled traders to clear their goods electronically, submitting customs declarations and supporting documents online and eliminating the need for visits to multiple government agencies to obtain clearance. As a result, Bolivia reduced the time required to prepare and submit all required documentation by 72 hours overall. Eleven economies significantly upgraded their trade logistics infrastructure in 2016/17. Inadequate infrastructure is one of the main burdens in international trade.(4) As part of its National Development Plan 2013-2017, Angola has significantly rehabilitated and upgraded the port of Luanda, expanding the terminals, adding new berths and acquiring equipment. This has resulted in improvements in handling processes and reduced border compliance time for both exports and imports.

The regions implementing the most reforms making it easier to trade across borders in 2016/17 were Sub-Saharan Africa (46% of reforms in this area) and East Asia and the Pacific (18%). Together, the economies in these two regions account for nearly 64% of reforms in this area as captured by Doing Business 2018. The remainder of reforms were made by economies in Latin America and the Caribbean (15%), the Middle East and North Africa (9%), South Asia (9%) and Europe and Central Asia (3%).

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1. World Bank Group and WTO 2015.
2. Hoekman and Nicita 2011.
3. Arvis and others 2010.
4.Lanz and others 2016.

Trading across borders reforms by economy DB2008-DB2018

Positive= Doing Business reform making it easier to do business.Negative= Change making it more difficult to do business.

Afghanistan

DB 2017: Afghanistan made exporting and importing easier by enhancing the usage of different modules of the ASYCUDA World customs processing system.

Albania

DB 2017: Albania made trading across borders more difficult by introducing mandatory scanning inspections for exports and imports, which increased the time and cost for border compliance.

DB 2016: Albania made exporting easier by implementing an electronic risk-based inspection system, which reduced the time for border compliance.

DB 2010: Albania reduced the time needed for customs clearance of imports by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system and by purchasing scanners.

Algeria

DB 2015: Algeria made trading across borders easier by upgrading infrastructure at the port of Algiers.

DB 2008: Algeria made trading across borders more difficult by increasing the number of inspections carried out.

Angola

DB 2018: Angola made trading across borders easier by improving infrastructure at the Port of Luanda.

DB 2014: Angola increased documentation requirements for cross-border trade by introducing a mandatory registration for all traders and a new license for export and import transactions.

DB 2011: Angola reduced the time for trading across borders by making investments in port infrastructure and administration.

DB 2010: Angola made trading across borders easier through a customs improvement program that streamlined procedures and reduced the time and cost of trade.

Antigua and Barbuda

DB 2017: Antigua and Barbuda made trading across borders easier by eliminating the tax compliance certificate required for import customs clearance.

DB 2013: Antigua and Barbuda made trading across borders more difficult by increasing the number of documents required to import.

Argentina

DB 2017: Argentina made trading across borders easier by introducing a new licensing system for importing, which reduced the time required for documentary compliance.

DB 2014: Argentina reduced the number of documents necessary for importing by eliminating nonautomatic license requirements.

DB 2013: Argentina increased the time, cost and number of documents needed to import by expanding the list of products requiring nonautomatic licenses and introducing new preapproval procedures for all imports.

Armenia

DB 2016: Armenia reduced the time and cost for documentary and border compliance for trade with the Russian Federation by joining the Eurasian Economic Union.

DB 2011: Armenia made trading easier by introducing self-declaration desks at customs houses and warehouses, investing in new equipment to improve border operations and introducing a risk management system.

DB 2010: Armenia reduced the time required for trading across borders by encouraging greater competition in the banking and transport sectors and customs brokerage service industry and by reducing the number of goods requiring inspection and the number of documents needed to clear goods.

DB 2008: Armenia made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic data interchange system (Direct Trader Input) that enables customs brokers to submit customs declarations electronically.

Austria

DB 2008: Austria made trading across borders easier by introducing an electronic customs clearance system and a risk-based inspection system.

Azerbaijan

DB 2017: Azerbaijan facilitated international trade processes by introducing an electronic system for submitting export and import declarations.

DB 2014: Azerbaijan made trading across borders easier by streamlining internal customs procedures.

DB 2010: Azerbaijan reduced the clearance and border crossing time for goods by streamlining and regrouping agencies behind a single customs service window.

Bahamas, The

DB 2016: The Bahamas made trading across borders easier by fully implementing an electronic data interchange system, which reduced the time for preparation and submission of trade documents for both exporting and importing.

Bahrain

DB 2017: Bahrain made exporting easier by improving infrastructure and streamlining procedures at the King Fahad Causeway.

DB 2011: Bahrain made it easier to trade by building a modern new port, improving the electronic data interchange system and introducing risk-based inspections.

Bangladesh

DB 2015: Bangladesh made trading across borders easier by introducing a fully automated, computerized customs data management system, ASYCUDA (Automated System for Customs Data) World. This reform applies to both Chittagong and Dhaka.

DB 2010: Bangladesh reduced the time required to clear goods by automating customs clearance procedures at the Chittagong port.

Belarus

DB 2011: Belarus reduced the time to trade by introducing electronic declaration of exports and imports.

DB 2010: Belarus reduced the transit time for trade by implementing a risk-based inspection system and improving operations at the border crossing.

DB 2009: Belarus reduced the time for exporting and importing through new regulations tightening the time limit for customs clearance and clarifying procedures for issuing a letter of credit.

Belgium

DB 2012: Belgium made trading across borders faster by improving its risk-based profiling system for imports.

Belize

DB 2013: Belize reduced the time to export and import by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system.

Benin

DB 2016: Benin made trading across borders easier by further developing its electronic single-window system, which reduced the time for border compliance for both exporting and importing.

DB 2015: Benin made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of documents needed for imports.

DB 2014: Benin made trading across borders easier by improving port management systems, enhancing the infrastructure around the port and putting in place new rules for the transit of trucks.

DB 2013: Benin reduced the time required to trade across borders by implementing an electronic single-window system integrating customs, control agencies, port authorities and other service providers at the Cotonou port.

DB 2010: Benin reduced the time needed to clear goods through customs by implementing an electronic data interchange system.

DB 2009: Benin reduced the time for exporting through improvements in port infrastructure.

Bolivia

DB 2018: Bolivia made exporting and importing easier by implementing the Sistema Único de Modernización Aduanera (SUMA), an automated customs data management system.

DB 2015: Bolivia made trading across borders more difficult by increasing customs clearance time.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

DB 2008: Bosnia and Herzegovina made trading across borders easier by enacting a new customs law, establishing a new customs administration and implementing an electronic data interchange system.

Botswana

DB 2018: Botswana made trading across borders easier by implementing a new automated customs data management system.

DB 2013: In Botswana exporting and importing became faster thanks to the introduction of a scanner by the country’s customs authority and an upgrade of South Africa’s customs declaration system, both at the Kopfontein–Tlokweng border post.

DB 2009: Botswana speeded up customs clearance on its border with South Africa and trained its customs officers in the use of the electronic data interchange system, resulting in quicker processing of trade documents.

Brazil

DB 2018: Brazil reduced the time for documentary compliance for both exporting and importing by enhancing its electronic data interchange system. This reform applies to both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

DB 2017: Brazil made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic system for importing, which reduced the time required for documentary compliance. This reform applies to both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

DB 2016: Brazil reduced the time for documentary and border compliance for exporting by implementing the electronic SISCOMEX Portal system. This reform applies to both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

DB 2009: Brazil reduced the time for exporting and importing by implementing the electronic data interchange systems SISCARGA and SISCOMEX CARGA as well as a risk-based inspection system for cargo. An increase in the number of banks offering letters of credit also contributed to the reduction in time.

DB 2008: Brazil made trading across borders easier by updating its electronic data interchange system for customs.

Brunei Darussalam

DB 2018: Brunei Darussalam made exporting and importing easier by enhancing the Brunei Darussalam National Single Window and the customs clearance process.

DB 2011: The introduction of an electronic customs system in Brunei Darussalam made trading easier.

Bulgaria

DB 2012: Bulgaria made trading across borders faster by introducing online submission of customs declaration forms.

Burkina Faso

DB 2011: Burkina Faso reduced documentation requirements for importers and exporters, making it easier to trade.

DB 2010: Burkina Faso reduced the time needed for trading across borders by creating a one-stop shop for commercial trade documents.

Burundi

DB 2014: Burundi made trading across borders easier by eliminating the requirement for a preshipment inspection clean report of findings.

DB 2013: Burundi reduced the time to trade across borders by enhancing its use of electronic data interchange systems, introducing a more efficient system for monitoring goods going through transit countries and improving border coordination with neighboring transit countries.

Cabo Verde

DB 2018: Cabo Verde made exporting and importing easier by implementing an automated customs data management system, ASYCUDA World.

Cambodia

DB 2011: Cambodia eliminated preshipment inspections, reducing the time and number of documents required for importing and exporting.

Cameroon

DB 2010: Cameroon reduced the time for exporting and importing, and enhanced the security of goods transiting within the country, by improving the single-window system (Guichet Unique du Commerce Extérieur) at Douala port and implementing a GPS tracking system and scanners for cargo.

Central African Republic

DB 2015: The Central African Republic made trading across borders more difficult by increasing border checks and security controls at the border post with Cameroon.

DB 2014: The Central African Republic made trading across borders easier by rehabilitating the key transit road at the border with Cameroon.

Chad

DB 2014: Chad made trading across borders more difficult by introducing a new export and import document.

Chile

DB 2012: Chile made trading across borders faster by implementing an online electronic data interchange system for customs operations.

China

DB 2010: China made trading across borders easier by relaxing trade credit restrictions.

Colombia

DB 2010: Colombia speeded up the customs clearance process by implementing the electronic data interchange system MUISCA.

DB 2009: Colombia reduced the time for exporting and importing through the implementation of risk management procedures, electronic data interchange and electronic payment of customs duties and through improvements in the banking sector.

DB 2008: Colombia made trading across borders easier by extending operating hours for customs and the port in Cartagena.

Comoros

DB 2018: The Comoros made trading across borders easier by implementing an automated customs data management system, SYDONIA++, which reduced the time for the preparation and submission of documents for both exports and imports.

Congo, Dem. Rep.

DB 2016: The Democratic Republic of Congo made trading across borders more difficult by increasing the port handling time and cost for exporting and importing.

DB 2010: In the Democratic Republic of Congo the participation of private companies in the terminal handling process at the port of Matadi has reduced cargo handling time by improving the quality of service.

Congo, Rep.

DB 2014: The Republic of Congo made trading across borders easier by implementing prearrival processing of ship manifests and making improvements in customs administration.

Costa Rica

DB 2008: Costa Rica made trading across borders easier by improving its electronic data interchange system and allowing electronic submission of cargo manifests before arrival of the goods.

Côte d'Ivoire

DB 2016: Côte d’Ivoire made trading across borders easier by implementing a single-window platform for importing, which reduced the time required for documentary compliance.

DB 2015: Côte d’Ivoire made trading across borders easier by simplifying the processes for producing the inspection report and by reducing port and terminal handling charges at the port of Abidjan.

Croatia

DB 2015: Croatia made trading across borders easier by implementing a new electronic customs system.

DB 2014: Croatia made trading across borders easier by improving the physical and information system infrastructure at the port of Rijeka and by streamlining export customs procedures in preparation for accession to the Common Transit Convention of the European Union.

DB 2009: Croatia reduced the time for exporting and importing through ongoing improvements in port infrastructure.

Czech Republic

DB 2013: The Czech Republic reduced the time to export and import by allowing electronic submission of customs declarations and other documents.

Djibouti

DB 2012: Djibouti made trading across borders faster by developing a new container terminal.

DB 2009: Djibouti reduced documentation requirements for exporting and importing, and time for importing, by improving port administration and eliminating some health and technical formalities.

DB 2008: Djibouti made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic manifest system.

Dominica

DB 2013: Dominica reduced the time to import by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system.

Dominican Republic

DB 2015: The Dominican Republic made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of documents required for exports and imports.

DB 2009: The Dominican Republic reduced the time for exporting and importing through improvements in the online portal for customs documents, in risk-based inspections and in the banking sector.

DB 2008: The Dominican Republic made trading across borders easier by reducing the documentation requirements.

Ecuador

DB 2015: Ecuador made trading across borders easier by introducing a new electronic data interchange system called ECUAPASS.

DB 2009: Ecuador reduced the time for exporting and importing through improvements in port infrastructure and the banking sector and by abolishing some documentation requirements.

Egypt, Arab Rep.

DB 2017: The Arab Republic of Egypt made trading across borders more difficult by making the process of obtaining and processing documents more complex and by imposing a cap on foreign exchange deposits and withdrawals for imports.

DB 2011: Egypt made trading easier by introducing an electronic system for submitting export and import documents.

DB 2009: Egypt made trading across borders easier by upgrading port facilities at Alexandria and speeding up customs clearance, while greater competition in the banking sector led to a reduction in the time to open a letter of credit.

DB 2008: Egypt made trading across borders easier by improving customs administration.

El Salvador

DB 2018: El Salvador made exporting and importing easier by increasing the number of customs officers at the Anguiatú land border.

DB 2016: El Salvador increased the border compliance time for exporting and importing by adding an extra, nonintrusive inspection at the Anguiatú border crossing with Guatemala.

DB 2014: El Salvador made trading across borders easier by developing a one-stop shop for exporting and by implementing electronic data interchange systems.

DB 2009: El Salvador reduced the time for exporting and importing by modernizing its customs system, reducing physical inspections, improving traffic control at the port and implementing a single-window system, while improvements in the banking sector reduced the time required to obtain a letter of credit.

DB 2008: El Salvador made trading across borders easier by establishing a one-stop shop for importers.

Equatorial Guinea

DB 2009: Equatorial Guinea increased the time for exporting by canceling the conditional release facility.

Eritrea

DB 2009: Eritrea made trading across borders easier by upgrading infrastructure at Massawa port as well as the roads between Massawa and Asmara. Meanwhile, increased efficiency among banks reduced the time required to open a letter of credit.

Ethiopia

DB 2018: Ethiopia made trading across border easier through a series of initiatives including the implementation of a risk-based inspection system, the streamlining of documents for importers and the strengthening of the customs authority.

DB 2011: Ethiopia made trading easier by addressing internal bureaucratic inefficiencies.

Fiji

DB 2011: Fiji made trading easier by opening customer care service centers and improving customs operations.

France

DB 2009: France speeded up and simplified customs clearance procedures by introducing an electronic customs declaration and eliminating the need to submit certain documents.

Gabon

DB 2009: Gabon made trading across borders more difficult by introducing an additional document for importing or exporting.

Gambia, The

DB 2012: The Gambia made trading across borders faster by implementing the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA).

DB 2008: The Gambia speeded up the trade clearance process by abolishing the requirement to scan all shipping containers and introducing a system of random inspections.

Georgia

DB 2017: Georgia made export and import documentary compliance faster by improving its electronic document processing system, as well as, introduced an advanced electronic document submission option.

DB 2013: Georgia reduced the time to export and import by creating customs clearance zones.

DB 2010: Georgia reduced the cost of trade and simplified the documentation requirements for exporting and importing.

Ghana

DB 2017: Ghana made trading across borders easier by removing the mandatory pre-arrival assessment inspection at origin for imported products.

DB 2016: Ghana reduced the documentary and border compliance time for importing by developing electronic channels for submitting and collecting the final classification and valuation report.

DB 2015: Ghana made trading across borders easier by upgrading infrastructure at the port of Tema.

DB 2013: Ghana added to the time required to import by increasing its scanning of imports and changing its customs clearance system.

DB 2008: Ghana made trading across borders easier by reducing congestion in the port area.

Greece

DB 2014: Greece made trading across borders easier by implementing a system allowing electronic submission of customs declarations for exports.

Grenada

DB 2017: Grenada made trading across borders easier by streamlining import document submission procedures, reducing the time required for documentary compliance.

DB 2013: Grenada reduced the time to export and import by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system.

DB 2011: Grenada’s customs administration made trading faster by simplifying procedures, reducing inspections, improving staff training and enhancing communication with users.

DB 2010: Grenada reduced the time for trading across borders through ongoing training of customs officers and brokers and implementation of electronic reference sources.

Guatemala

DB 2016: Guatemala reduced the documentary and border compliance time for importing by making electronic submission of documents compulsory and eliminating the need for many hard-copy documents.

DB 2008: Guatemala made trading across borders easier by implementing a new electronic data interchange system, training customs staff and improving its risk-based inspection system.

Guinea

DB 2014: Guinea made trading across borders easier by improving port management systems.

Guyana

DB 2011: Guyana improved its risk profiling system for customs inspection, reducing physical inspections of shipments and the time to trade.

DB 2010: Guyana reduced the time for exporting and importing by implementing a system allowing customs brokers to submit documents electronically.

Haiti

DB 2017: Haiti made trading across borders easier by improving port infrastructure and improving the SYDONIA electronic data interchange system by allowing the submission of supporting documents online.

DB 2010: Haiti speeded up the clearance of goods through customs by implementing the ASYCUDA system and introducing 24-hour operations at the port.

DB 2009: Haiti reduced the time for exporting by implementing a risk-based inspection system.

Honduras

DB 2017: Honduras made trading across borders more difficult by increasing the number of intrusive inspections for importing, which increased the border compliance time.

DB 2012: Honduras made trading across borders faster by implementing a web-based electronic data interchange system and X-ray machines at the port of Puerto Cortes.

DB 2009: Honduras made importing easier by eliminating the requirement for consular legalization of trade documents.

Hungary

DB 2013: Hungary reduced the time to export and import by allowing electronic submission of customs declarations and other documents.

India

DB 2018: India reduced import border compliance time in Mumbai by improving infrastructure at the Nhava Sheva Port. Export and import border compliance cost were also reduced in both Delhi and Mumbai by eliminating merchant overtime fees and through the increased use of electronic and mobile platforms.

DB 2017: India made exporting and importing easier by launching Customs Electronic Commerce Interchange Gateway portal and simplifying border and documentary compliance procedures. This reform applies to both New Delhi and Mumbai.

DB 2009: India reduced the time for exporting by implementing an electronic data interchange system.

DB 2008: India made trading across borders easier by introducing ICEGATE—an electronic data interchange system making it possible to lodge customs declarations through the internet and facilitating the operation of a risk management system, an electronic payment system and an electronic manifest system that allows shipping lines to submit their cargo manifest in advance.

Indonesia

DB 2018: Indonesia made importing faster by introducing an electronic single billing system. This reform applies to both Jakarta and Surabaya.

DB 2017: Indonesia made exporting and importing easier by improving the customs services and document submission functions of the Indonesia National Single Window.

DB 2015: In Indonesia trading across borders became more difficult because of insufficient infrastructure at the Tanjung Priok Port Jakarta. This change applies to both Jakarta and Surabaya.

DB 2011: Indonesia reduced the time to export by launching a single-window service.

Iran, Islamic Rep.

DB 2017: The Islamic Republic of Iran made exporting and importing easier by improving and expanding the services offered by the national single window.

DB 2010: The Islamic Republic of Iran reduced the time for exporting and importing through the installation of scanners at the port of Shahid Rajaee and the reorganization of customs clearance offices to separate inspections of special goods (chemicals, petroleum) from those of general goods.

Israel

DB 2012: Israel made trading across borders easier by changing the method used to calculate port fees.

DB 2011: Israel is expanding its electronic data interchange system and developing a single-window framework, allowing easier assembly of documents required by different authorities and reducing the time to trade.

Jamaica

DB 2018: Jamaica reduced the time for documentary compliance for importing by implementing a web-based customs data management platform, ASYCUDA World.

DB 2017: Jamaica reduced the time of documentary compliance for exporting by implementing an automated customs data management system, ASYCUDA World.

DB 2013: Jamaica reduced the time to import by allowing customs entries to be lodged at night.

Jordan

DB 2017: Jordan made exporting and importing easier by streamlining customs clearance processes, advancing the use of a single window and improving infrastructure at the Aqaba customs and port.

DB 2015: Jordan made trading across borders easier by improving infrastructure at the port of Aqaba.

DB 2012: Jordan made trading across borders faster by introducing X-ray scanners for risk management systems.

DB 2010: Jordan reduced the time for exporting and importing by implementing a risk-based inspection system with postdestination clearance for preapproved traders, reducing the number of containers subject to physical inspection and allowing online submission of customs declarations by fully implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system.

Kazakhstan

DB 2017: Kazakhstan made exporting less costly by removing two export documents required for customs clearance.

DB 2015: Kazakhstan made trading across borders easier by opening a new border station and railway link that helped reduce congestion at the border with China.

DB 2011: Kazakhstan speeded up trade through efforts to modernize customs, including implementation of a risk management system and improvements in customs automation.

Kenya

DB 2018: Kenya reduced the time for import documentary compliance by utilizing its single window system, which allows for electronic submission of customs entries.

DB 2011: Kenya speeded up trade by implementing an electronic cargo tracking system and linking this system to the Kenya Revenue Authority’s electronic data interchange system for customs clearance.

DB 2009: Kenya made trading across borders easier by extending the operating hours of customs and port authorities, reducing the number of inspection points between Nairobi and Mombasa and introducing an electronic system allowing traders to submit their documents online.

Korea, Rep.

DB 2009: Korea made trading across borders easier by upgrading the electronic data interchange system.

Kosovo

DB 2017: Kosovo reduced the time and cost of documentary compliance and the time of border compliance for exporting by improving its automated customs data management system, streamlining customs clearance processes and implementing an Albania-Kosovo Transit Corridor.

Kuwait

DB 2017: Kuwait made exporting and importing easier by introducing customs e-links and electronic exchange of information among various agencies.

DB 2010: Kuwait reduced the time required for customs clearance by improving administrative procedures and staff training.

Kyrgyz Republic

DB 2017: The Kyrgyz Republic decreased time and cost for exporting by becoming a member of the Euroasian Economic Union.

DB 2010: The Kyrgyz Republic made trading across borders easier and less time consuming by eliminating some previously required documents and simplifying inspection procedures.

Lao PDR

DB 2013: Lao PDR reduced the time to export and import by implementing the ASYCUDA electronic data interchange system at at the Thanaleng–Friendship Bridge border crossing.

DB 2008: Lao PDR took measures aimed at making it easier to trade across borders, including the introduction of new regulations limiting the government agencies that may be involved in inspecting goods at the border.

Latvia

DB 2014: Latvia made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of documents required for importing.

DB 2011: Latvia reduced the time to export and import by introducing electronic submission of customs declarations.

Liberia

DB 2012: Liberia made trading across borders faster by implementing online submission of customs forms and enhancing risk-based inspections.

DB 2010: Liberia reduced the time needed for trading across borders by creating a one-stop shop that brings together government ministries and agencies and by streamlining the inspection process.

DB 2009: Liberia made trading across borders less costly by reducing fees for customs clearance and port and terminal handling.

Lithuania

DB 2011: Lithuania reduced the time to import by introducing, in compliance with EU law, an electronic system for submitting customs declarations.

Macedonia, FYR

DB 2009: FYR Macedonia reduced the time for exporting and importing by rationalizing the customs fee schedule and permit structure, improving the risk-based inspection system, simplifying customs procedures and eliminating a document previously required.

Madagascar

DB 2017: Madagascar made trading across borders easier by simplifying and streamlining customs procedures and implementing an electronic data interchange system, which reduced the time for preparation and submission of trade documents for both exporting and importing.

DB 2016: Madagascar reduced the time for border compliance for both exporting and importing by upgrading port infrastructure—and also reduced the time for documentary compliance for importing.

DB 2014: Madagascar made trading across borders easier by rolling out an online platform linking trade operators with government agencies involved in the trade process and customs clearance.

DB 2011: Madagascar improved communication and coordination between customs and the terminal port operators through its single-window system (GASYNET), reducing both the time and the cost to export and import.

DB 2009: Madagascar reduced the time for exporting and importing by implementing an electronic data interchange system, a single-window system, risk-based inspections and improvements in port infrastructure.

DB 2008: Madagascar made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic data interchange system, improving port infrastructure and streamlining documentation requirements.

Malawi

DB 2018: Malawi made exporting and importing easier by upgrading to a web-based customs data management platform, ASYCUDA World.

DB 2013: Trading across borders in Malawi became easier thanks to improvements in customs clearance procedures and transport links between the port of Beira in Mozambique and Blantyre.

DB 2010: Malawi reduced delays in clearing goods by implementing a risk-based inspection system and a postdestination clearance program for preapproved traders.

Malaysia

DB 2018: Malaysia made importing and exporting easier by improving the infrastructure, equipment and facilities at Port Klang.

Mali

DB 2016: Mali reduced the time for documentary compliance for both exporting and importing by introducing an electronic data interchange system.

DB 2011: Mali eliminated redundant inspections of imported goods, reducing the time for trading across borders.

DB 2010: Mali reduced the time required for trading across borders by implementing an electronic data interchange system, improving the terminals used by Malian traders and streamlining documentation requirements.

DB 2009: Mali made trading across borders easier by introducing a new electronic data interchange system and by reaching a border cooperation agreement with Senegal.

Mauritania

DB 2018: Mauritania made trading across border easier through a series of initiatives at the Port of Nouakchott, such as eliminating the requirement to weigh all import containers, investing in infrastructure, streamlining the movement of cargo and consolidating the payment of fees.

DB 2017: Mauritania made trading across borders easier by upgrading SYDONIA World electronic system, which reduced the time for preparation and submission of customs declarations for both exports and imports.

DB 2016: Mauritania reduced the documentary and border compliance time for importing by eliminating the preimport declaration and value attestation and making the manifest electronic.

DB 2014: Mauritania made trading across borders easier by introducing a new riskbased inspection system with scanners.

Mauritius

DB 2018: Mauritius made trading across borders easier by improving the Cargo Community System, introducing advanced electronic document submission and updating the risk-based inspection system.

DB 2010: Mauritius reduced the time for trading across borders by introducing electronic submission for customs declarations and bills of lading with no requirement for physical copies.

DB 2008: Mauritius made trading across borders easier by implementing a new computerized risk management system for customs inspections.

Mexico

DB 2014: Mexico made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic single-window system.

Montenegro

DB 2011: Montenegro’s customs administration simplified trade by eliminating the requirement to present a terminal handling receipt for exporting and importing.

Morocco

DB 2017: Morocco made trading across borders easier by further developing its single window system and thus reducing border compliance time for importing.

DB 2015: Morocco made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of export documents required.

DB 2009: Morocco reduced the time for exporting and importing by eliminating the container identification card.

DB 2008: Morocco made trading across borders easier by introducing a risk-based inspection system.

Mozambique

DB 2018: Mozambique made exporting easier by improving infrastructure at the Maputo-Matola port complex.

DB 2014: Mozambique made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic single-window system.

DB 2010: Mozambique reduced the time required to clear goods by introducing administrative improvements at customs.

Myanmar

DB 2017: Myanmar made trading across borders more difficult by experiencing delays and higher cost at processing incoming cargo at the port of Yangon.

DB 2015: Myanmar made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of documents required for exports and imports.

Nepal

DB 2017: Exporting in Nepal became more difficult due to an increase in the time and cost for documentary compliance following the introduction of a special vehicle permit requirement. At the same time, Nepal implemented the ASYCUDA World data management system, which expedited the customs clearance process.

Netherlands

DB 2013: The Netherlands made importing easier by introducing a new web-based system for cargo release at the port terminals in Rotterdam.

Nicaragua

DB 2017: Nicaragua made trading across borders more expensive by introducing a new security fee, increasing the cost of border compliance for exporting and importing.

DB 2011: Nicaragua expedited trade by migrating to a new electronic data interchange system for customs, setting up a physical one-stop shop for exports and investing in new equipment at the port of Corinto.

Niger

DB 2017: Niger made trading across borders easier by removing the mandatory pre-shipment inspection for imported products.

DB 2016: Niger increased the time and cost for documentary and border compliance for importing by making a preshipment inspection mandatory.

DB 2013: Niger reduced the time to import by expanding and optimizing the use of an electronic data interchange system for customs clearance.

Nigeria

DB 2009: Nigeria speeded up exporting and importing by upgrading facilities at Apapa port in Lagos.

Oman

DB 2018: Oman made exporting and importing easier by enhancing its online single window system for exports and imports, reducing the time required for documentary compliance.

DB 2017: Oman reduced the time for border and documentary compliance by introducing a new online single window/one-stop service that allows for fast electronic clearance of goods.

DB 2016: Oman reduced the time for border compliance for both exporting and importing by transferring cargo operations from Sultan Qaboos Port to Sohar Port.

Pakistan

DB 2018: Pakistan made importing and exporting easier by developing a new container terminal and enhancing its customs platform for electronic document submission. These changes apply to both Karachi and Lahore.

DB 2017: Pakistan made exporting and importing easier by enhancing its electronic "Web Based One Customs Platform".

DB 2015: Pakistan made trading across borders easier by introducing a fully automated, computerized system (the Web-Based One Customs system) for the submission and processing of export and import documents. This reform applies to both Lahore and Karachi.

DB 2011: Pakistan reduced the time to export by improving electronic communication between the Karachi Port authorities and the private terminals, which have also boosted efficiency by introducing new equipment.

Palau

DB 2015: Palau made trading across borders easier by improving the system for calculating customs duties and thereby reducing customs clearance time.

DB 2009: Palau reduced the time for importing by automating customs declarations under the Customs Administration Modernization Project.

Paraguay

DB 2017: Paraguay made trading across borders easier by introducing a single window for exporting, which reduced the time required of border and documentary compliance.

DB 2010: Paraguay reduced the time required for trading across borders by implementing an electronic single-window system for exports and improving the risk-based inspection system.

Peru

DB 2011: Peru made trading easier by implementing a new web-based electronic data interchange system, risk-based inspections and payment deferrals.

DB 2010: Peru made trading across borders easier by adding cranes at the port of Callao and thereby speeding up port and terminal handling activities.

Philippines

DB 2015: In the Philippines trading across borders became more difficult because of a new city ordinance restricting truck traffic in Manila.

DB 2011: The Philippines reduced the time and cost to trade by improving its electronic customs systems, adding such functions as electronic payments and online submission of declarations.

DB 2009: The Philippines reduced the time for importing by upgrading the risk-based inspection and electronic data interchange systems.

Poland

DB 2015: Poland made trading across borders easier by implementing a new terminal operating system at the port of Gdansk.

DB 2012: Poland made trading across borders faster by implementing electronic preparation and submission of customs documents.

Portugal

DB 2013: Portugal made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic single window for port procedures.

DB 2010: Portugal reduced the time required for customs clearance through staff training and improvements in customs procedures.

Qatar

DB 2018: Qatar made exporting and importing easier by inaugurating the new Hamad Port.

DB 2016: Qatar reduced the time for border compliance for importing by reducing the number of days of free storage at the port and thus the time required for port handling.

DB 2013: Qatar reduced the time to export and import by introducing a new online portal allowing electronic submission of customs declarations for clearance at the Doha seaport.

Russian Federation

DB 2018: Russia made exporting and importing easier by opening a new deep water port on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, increasing competition and reducing the cost of border compliance at the Port of St. Petersburg. This reform applies to both Moscow and St. Petersburg.

DB 2014: Russia made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic system for submitting export and import documents and by reducing the number of physical inspections.

DB 2012: Russia made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of documents needed for each export or import transaction and lowering the associated cost.

Rwanda

DB 2017: Rwanda made trading across borders easier by removing the mandatory pre-shipment inspection for imported products.

DB 2016: Rwanda increased the time and cost for documentary and border compliance for importing by making preshipment inspection mandatory for all imported products.

DB 2014: Rwanda made trading across borders easier by introducing an electronic single-window system at the border.

DB 2011: Rwanda reduced the number of trade documents required and enhanced its joint border management procedures with Uganda and other neighbors, leading to an improvement in the trade logistics environment.

DB 2010: Rwanda reduced the time required for trading across borders by introducing administrative changes such as expanded operating hours and enhanced border cooperation and by eliminating some documentation requirements.

DB 2009: Rwanda reduced the time for exporting and importing by extending the opening hours of customs points, implementing or improving electronic data interchange and risk-based inspection systems and making improvements in the transport sector.

DB 2008: Rwanda made trading across borders easier by expediting the acceptance of customs declarations and liberalizing the warehouse services market.

São Tomé and Príncipe

DB 2018: São Tomé and Príncipe made exporting and importing easier by implementing a one-stop shop and electronic trade single window.

DB 2012: São Tomé and Príncipe made trading across borders faster by adopting legislative, administrative and technological improvements.

Saudi Arabia

DB 2018: Saudi Arabia reduced the time for documentary compliance for exports and imports by reducing the number of documents required for customs clearance.

DB 2014:

DB 2011: Saudi Arabia reduced the time to import by launching a new container terminal at the Jeddah Islamic Port.

DB 2008: Saudi Arabia made importing easier by abolishing the requirement for a consular certificate, allowing the electronic transfer of data (and therefore eliminating the requirement for hard copies of documents) and improving the capacity of facilities in the port of Jeddah.

Senegal

DB 2012: Senegal made trading across borders less costly by opening the market for transport, which increased competition.

DB 2010: Senegal made trading across borders easier and less time consuming by introducing improvements at the container terminal at the port of Dakar and increasing the number of agencies involved in trade facilitation.

DB 2009: Senegal reduced the time and documentation requirements for exporting and importing by introducing single-window, electronic data interchange and risk-based inspection systems; extending the operating hours of customs; improving port and road infrastructure; and reducing the number of checkpoints.

Seychelles

DB 2012: The Seychelles made trading across borders faster by introducing electronic submission of customs documents.

Sierra Leone

DB 2018: Sierra Leone made trading across borders easier through a series of initiatives, including the elimination of export permits and the implementation of pre-arrival processing.

DB 2012: Sierra Leone made trading across borders faster by implementing the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA).

DB 2010: Sierra Leone made trading across borders more costly through an increase in some fees, though it also reduced the time required for trade.

DB 2009: Sierra Leone made trading across borders easier by eliminating the requirement for an export license for coffee.

Singapore

DB 2018: Singapore made exporting and importing easier by improving infrastructure and electronic equipment at the port.

Slovak Republic

DB 2010: The Slovak Republic reduced the time for trading across borders by introducing more electronic systems for customs administration.

Slovenia

DB 2012: Slovenia made trading across borders faster by introducing online submission of customs declaration forms.

South Africa

DB 2013: South Africa reduced the time and documents required to export and import through its ongoing customs modernization program.

Spain

DB 2013: Spain reduced the time to import by further expanding the use of electronic submission of customs declarations and improving the sharing of information among customs and other agencies.

DB 2011: Spain streamlined the documentation for imports by including tax-related information on its single administrative document.

Sri Lanka

DB 2018: Sri Lanka made exporting and importing easier by developing a customs single window.

DB 2014: Sri Lanka made trading across borders easier by introducing an electronic payment system for port services.

DB 2013: Sri Lanka reduced the time to export by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system.

DB 2008: Sri Lanka made trading across borders easier by introducing a new electronic data interchange system that enables electronic submission and processing of customs declarations and cargo manifests and by providing for legal recognition of electronic documents and contracts.

St. Kitts and Nevis

DB 2018: St. Kitts and Nevis made trading across borders easier by updating its website and implementing ASYCUDA, an automated customs data management system, reducing documentary compliance time for exports and imports.

DB 2013: St. Kitts and Nevis made it more expensive to export by increasing the cost of operations at the port of Basseterre.

DB 2010: St. Kitts and Nevis reduced the time required for trading across borders by making it possible to submit customs declarations electonically.

St. Lucia

DB 2017: St. Lucia made exporting and importing easier by upgrading an electronic data interchange system and linking the customs and port authorities through a common online platform.

DB 2015: St. Lucia made trading across borders easier by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic system for the submission of export and import documents and by reducing the number of export documents required.

DB 2014: St. Lucia made trading across borders more difficult by introducing a new export document.

Sudan

DB 2010: Sudan reduced the time required for trading across borders by making it easier to file customs declarations online, by connecting 10 additional customs offices to the electronic system and by adding 2 new scanners at the port of Sudan.

Suriname

DB 2016: Suriname reduced the time for documentary and border compliance for exporting and importing by implementing an automated customs data management system, ASYCUDA (Automated System for Customs Data) World.

DB 2013: Suriname increased the time to export by involving more customs departments in clearing exports.

Swaziland

DB 2018: Swaziland made exporting and importing easier by implementing a web-based customs data management platform, ASYCUDA World.

DB 2014: Swaziland made trading across borders easier by streamlining the process for obtaining a certificate of origin.

DB 2011: Swaziland reduced the import time of trading across borders by implementing an electronic data interchange system for customs at its border posts.

Syrian Arab Republic

DB 2009: The entry of private banks into the Syrian market led to faster issuance of letters of credit, making it easier to trade across borders.

Taiwan, China

DB 2018: Taiwan, China made exporting easier by allowing different organizations to electronically issue certificates of origin.

Tajikistan

DB 2016: Tajikistan made trading across borders easier by making it possible to submit customs declarations electronically.

Tanzania

DB 2016: Tanzania reduced the time for both exporting and importing by implementing the Tanzania Customs Integrated System (TANCIS), an online system for downloading and processing customs documents.

DB 2015: Tanzania made trading across borders easier by upgrading infrastructure at the port of Dar es Salaam.

DB 2013: Tanzania made importing more difficult by introducing a requirement to obtain a certificate of conformity before the imported goods are shipped.

DB 2012: Tanzania made trading across borders faster by implementing the Pre-Arrival Declaration (PAD) system and electronic submission of customs declaration.

Thailand

DB 2009: Thailand reduced the time and number of documents for exporting and importing by upgrading the electronic data interchange system.

DB 2008: Thailand reduced the time required for trading across borders by implementing a system allowing electronic submission of customs declarations and simultaneous verification of data by different agencies.

Togo

DB 2017: Togo made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic single-window system, which reduced the time for border compliance and documentary compliance for both exporting and importing.

DB 2016: Togo reduced the time for documentary and border compliance for importing by implementing an electronic platform connecting several agencies for import procedures and payments.

DB 2014: Togo made trading across borders more difficult by granting monopoly control of all port activities at the port of Lomé to a private company.

Trinidad and Tobago

DB 2013: Trinidad and Tobago reduced the time to export and import by launching the ASYCUDA World electronic data interchange system and simplifying the process for obtaining a certificate of origin.

Tunisia

DB 2016: Tunisia reduced border compliance time for both exporting and importing by improving the efficiency of its state-owned port handling company and investing in port infrastructure at the port of Rades.

DB 2015: In Tunisia trading across borders became more difficult because of a deterioration in port infrastructure (for example, in loading and unloading equipment) and inadequate terminal space.

DB 2011: Tunisia upgraded its electronic data interchange system for imports and exports, speeding up the assembly of import documents.

DB 2010: Tunisia reduced the time required for trading across borders by enabling traders to electronically submit most documents required to clear cargo through the TradeNet single-window system—though traders must still bring the original copies to customs for verification.

DB 2009: Tunisia increased the time for importing by introducing a requirement for freight arriving at the port to be accompanied by a unit of the customs authority.

Turkey

DB 2008: Turkey made trading across borders easier by introducing an electronic data interchange system, improving information technology infrastructure and training some 2,500 customs officers and 14,000 traders.

Uganda

DB 2018: Uganda reduced the time for export documentary compliance and border compliance by allowing for electronic document submission and processing of certificates of origin and by further developing the Malaba One-Stop Border Post.

DB 2017: Uganda made trading across borders easier by constructing the Malaba One-Stop Border Post which reduced border compliance time for exports.

DB 2015: Uganda made trading across borders easier by implementing the ASYCUDA World electronic system for the submission of export and import documents.

DB 2010: Uganda reduced the time required for trading across borders through expanded operating hours at the port of Mombasa and improvements in customs processes and in border cooperation.

DB 2008: Uganda made trading across borders easier by extending the ASYCUDA++ electronic data interchange system to 4 additional customs stations, introducing a system linking banks to customs (for payment of duties) and enhancing cooperation at the Kenya–Uganda border crossing at Malaba through joint inspections.

Ukraine

DB 2014: Ukraine made trading across borders easier by releasing customs declarations more quickly and reducing the number of physical inspections.

DB 2012: Ukraine made trading across borders more difficult by introducing additional inspections for customs clearance of imports.

DB 2009: Ukraine reduced the time for importing by improving port infrastructure and services.

United Arab Emirates

DB 2011: The United Arab Emirates streamlined document preparation and reduced the time to trade with the launch of Dubai Customs’ comprehensive new customs system, Mirsal 2.

DB 2010: The United Arab Emirates made trading across borders easier through greater capacity at the container terminal in Dubai, elimination of the requirement for a terminal handling receipt and improvements in the banking sector reducing the cost of trade finance products.

Uruguay

DB 2015: Uruguay made trading across borders easier by implementing a risk-based inspection system that reduced customs clearance time for both exports and imports.

DB 2014: Uruguay made trading across borders easier by implementing an electronic customs declaration system.

DB 2013: Uruguay reduced the time to import by improving port efficiency and introducing electronic payment and predeclaration systems for customs.

DB 2009: Uruguay reduced the time for exporting and importing by implementing an electronic data interchange system and through improvements in the banking sector.

Uzbekistan

DB 2015: Uzbekistan made trading across borders easier by reducing the number of documents to export and import and by making it possible to submit documents electronically.

DB 2014: Uzbekistan made trading across borders easier by eliminating the need to register import contracts with customs, tightening the time limits for banks to register export or import contracts and reducing the number of export documents required.

DB 2013: Uzbekistan reduced the time to export by introducing a single window for customs clearance and reduced the number of documents needed for each import transaction.

Vanuatu

DB 2016: Vanuatu reduced the border compliance time for importing by improving infrastructure at the port of Vila.

DB 2012: Vanuatu made trading across borders faster by upgrading Port-Vila’s wharf infrastructure, which increased the efficiency of port and terminal handling activities.

Venezuela, RB

DB 2008: República Bolivariana de Venezuela made exporting more difficult by introducing new requirements for registration of export transactions.

Vietnam

DB 2018: Vietnam made exporting and importing easier by upgrading the automated cargo clearance system and extending the operating hours of the customs department.

DB 2017: Vietnam made exporting and importing easier by implementing electronic customs clearance system.

DB 2010: Vietnam reduced the time for exporting and importing by implementing World Trade Organization rules for customs administration; increasing competition in the logistics industry also helped reduce delays.

West Bank and Gaza

DB 2011: More efficient processes at Palestinian customs made trading easier in the West Bank.

Yemen, Rep.

DB 2015: In the Republic of Yemen trading across borders became more difficult as a result of inefficient port operation.

DB 2010: The Republic of Yemen reduced the time required for trading across borders by implementing a risk-based inspection system and an electronic data interchange system.

Zambia

DB 2018: Zambia made exporting and importing easier by implementing a web-based customs data management platform, ASYCUDA World.

DB 2016: Zambia increased the documentary and border compliance time for both exporting and importing by shifting all clearance authority to a central processing center at the initial stage of implementing a web-based customs platform (ASYCUDA World).

DB 2011: Zambia eased trade by implementing a one-stop border post with Zimbabwe, launching web-based submission of customs declarations and introducing scanning machines at border posts.

Zimbabwe

DB 2017: Zimbabwe made trading across borders more difficult by introducing a mandatory pre-shipment inspection for imported products.