Economy Characteristics

Doing Business uses a number of variables to characterize a country. Among them:

Gross national income (GNI) per capita

Doing Business 2018 reports 2016 income per capita as published in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators 2017Income is calculated using the Atlas method (in current U.S. dollars). For cost indicators expressed as a percentage of income per capita, 2016 gross national income (GNI) per capita in current U.S. dollars is used as the denominator. GNI data based on the Atlas method were not available for Bahrain; Brunei Darussalam; Djibouti; Eritrea; the Islamic Republic of Iran; Kuwait; Libya; Myanmar; Oman; Papua New Guinea; Puerto Rico (territory of the United States); Qatar; San Marino; Somalia; South Sudan; the Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan; China; Timor-Leste; Vanuatu; and the República Bolivariana de Venezuela. In these cases GDP or GNP per capita data and growth rates from other sources, such as the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook database and the Economist Intelligence Unit, were used.

Region and income group

Doing Business uses the World Bank regional and income group classifications. Regional averages presented in figures and tables in the Doing Business report include economies from all income groups (low, lower middle, upper middle and high income), though high-income OECD economies are assigned the “regional” classification OECD high income.


Doing Business 2018 reports midyear 2016 population statistics as published in World Development Indicators 2017.

Additional development data and statistics are available from the World Bank. For main Doing Business indicators by economy, click on the economy name.