#

Business Reforms for Labor Market Regulation

Afghanistan

DB 2008: Afghanistan increased the maximum number of working days allowed per week and introduced a requirement for third-party approval for collective dismissals.

Albania

DB 2018: Albania amended legislation to reduce the maximum number of hour allowed in a workweek and to mandate that women and men be given equal remuneration for work of equal value.

Angola

DB 2017: Angola adopted a new labor law that decreased the wage premium for overtime and night work and increased the wage premium for work on weekly holidays. The law also extended the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and made fixed-term contracts able to be used for permanent tasks, reduced severance pay for redundancy dismissals of employees with five and ten years of continuous employment and increased severance pay for employees with one continuous year of service.

Argentina

DB 2009: Argentina reduced the severance pay applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals

Armenia

DB 2012: Armenia increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts, reduced the premium applicable in case of night work as well as decreased the notice period and the severance pay applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Australia

DB 2011: Australia introduced the severance payment obligation and reemployment consideration applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals. Annual leave was increased and averaging of hours is now allowed in shorter periods of time. In addition, notice period applicable in case of redundancy dismissals was decreased.

Azerbaijan

DB 2009: Azerbaijan allowed fixed-term contracts to be concluded for permanent tasks, eliminated the requirements to notify third parties in cases of redundancy dismissals, and repealed a retraining or reassignment obligation before an employer can make a worker redundant.

Bahamas, The

DB 2018: The Bahamas amended its legislation to introduce priority rules that apply to reemployment.

Bahrain

DB 2014: Bahrain reduced the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts, made third-party notification mandatory for redundancy dismissals and increased paid annual leave.

Belarus

DB 2016: - Belarus amended the provisions of its Labor Code relating to wage regulation, labor arbitration, calculation of overtime pay and grounds for termination of employment. It also lifted prohibitions on concurrent employment. - Belarus increased the minimum wage from 1,600,000 Belarussian Rubles per month to 2,100 000 Belarussian Rubles per month, in accordance with the ‘Determination of minimum wage’ Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus, dated 12/9/2014 No. 1151

DB 2010: Belarus eliminated the requirement for third-party notification for redundancy dismissals.

Belgium

DB 2015: Belgium increased the notice period for redundancy dismissals.

DB 2012: Belgium increased the severance payment obligation.

Belize

DB 2012: Belize introduced the requirements to notify third parties in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Bhutan

DB 2013: Bhutan introduced a minimum wage.

DB 2011: Bhutan established the mandatory paid annual leave.

DB 2008: Bhutan increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts, eliminated restrictions on night work, introduced a requirement for third-party notification for redundancy dismissals and increased redundancy costs.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

DB 2018: Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted legislation that decreased wage premiums for overtime, weekly holiday, night work, and increased minimum wage.

Brazil

DB 2017: Brazil expanded eligibility for unemployment benefits to employees with one year of continuous work experience. This reform applies to both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

DB 2013: Brazil increased the notice period applicable in cases of redundancy dismissal of employees.

Brunei Darussalam

DB 2011: Brunei Darussalam instituted mandatory minimum annual leave and reduced notice periods applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Burkina Faso

DB 2009: Burkina Faso allowed fixed-term contracts to be concluded for permanent tasks, removed the 48-month limit on their duration. It also eliminated restrictions on “weekly holiday” work and the employer's obligation to notify a third party before dismissing one redundant worker.

Cabo Verde

DB 2017: Cabo Verde introduced unemployment insurance for workers with a contribution period of at least six months.

DB 2015: Cabo Verde introduced a minimum wage.

DB 2009: Cape Verde reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts, increased paid annual leave, introduced a retraining or reassignment obligation and increased the notice period in cases of redundancy dismissals.

China

DB 2009: China established paid annual leave and introduced priority rules for redundancy dismissals or layoffs.

Colombia

DB 2018: Colombia increased the mandatory length of paid maternity leave.

Comoros

DB 2017: The Comoros reduced the length of notice period and amount of severance payment for redundancy dismissals.

Congo, Dem. Rep.

DB 2018: The Democratic Republic of Congo introduced regulation pertaining to working hours

DB 2017: The Democratic Republic of Congo adopted legislation that prohibits discrimination in hiring on the basis of gender.

Croatia

DB 2016: 1) Croatia eliminated the requirement to retrain or reassign employees before they can be made redundant. 2) In accordance with the Minimal Wage Act, Art. 1, published in Official Gazette No.151/2014, the minimum wage has been increased from 3.017,61 Kuna/month to 3.029,55 Croatian Kuna/month gross salary, in force for the period of January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.

DB 2015: Croatia lifted the 3-year limit on the duration of first-time fixed-term contracts.

DB 2011: Croatia increased the mandatory paid annual leave.

Cyprus

DB 2017: Cyprus amended its legislation to allow shops and supermarkets to operate seven days a week

Czech Republic

DB 2014: The Czech Republic abolished the minimum wage for young workers.

DB 2013: The Czech Republic increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and reduced the severance pay applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals of employees with one year of service.

DB 2009: Czech Republic amended its Labor Code allowing the performance of more overtime work per week.

DB 2008: : The Czech Republic eliminated the obligation for retraining or reassignment in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Dominican Republic

DB 2018: The Dominican Republic increased the mandatory length of paid maternity leave.

Ecuador

DB 2016: Ecuador eliminated fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks.

Estonia

DB 2011: Estonia eliminated the applicable priority rules for dismissals as well as the obligation to notify and obtain the approval of a third party in case of redundancy dismissals. It also removed restrictions on night work and reduced notice period and severance payment applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Fiji

DB 2009: Fiji introduced a requirement to notify third parties in cases of redundancy dismissals and implemented a severance payment obligation.

Finland

DB 2018: Finland increased the length of the maximum probationary period for permanent employees.

DB 2015: Finland eliminated the requirement to notify a third party before dismissing a redundant employee or group of redundant employees.

France

DB 2017: France reformed its labor legislation by introducing changes to the administration of labor tribunals, extending Sunday and evening work in areas designated as international tourist zones and facilitating employee employer dialogue.

DB 2015: France substantially amended its labor market regulations, including the provisions dealing with large-scale collective redundancy processes.

Gambia, The

DB 2009: The Gambia increased the notice period for redundancy dismissals.

Georgia

DB 2015: Georgia reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and introduced a notice period for redundancy dismissals.

Germany

DB 2016: Germany introduced a minimum wage of €8.50 an hour in accordance with the Act on Minimum Wages (Mindestlohngesetz), which took effect on January 1, 2015.

Greece

DB 2012: Greece decreased the severance pay applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Honduras

DB 2010: Honduras increased the severance payments applicable in redundancy dismissals.

Hong Kong SAR, China

DB 2012: Hong Kong, China introduced a Minimum Wage.

Hungary

DB 2017: Hungary amended legislation to remove restrictions limiting the operating hours for retail shops.

DB 2016: Hungary adopted legislation limiting the operating hours for retail shops.

DB 2014: Hungary reduced the premium for night work and weekly holiday work and increased the minimum wage.

India

DB 2018: India increased the mandatory length of paid maternity. This reform applies to both New Delhi and Mumbai.

Ireland

DB 2014: Ireland ended a 60% rebate for employers on severance payments and eliminated the requirement for third-party notification when terminating a redundant worker.

Italy

DB 2016: Italy adopted the Jobs Act, which simplifies redundancy rules and encourages out-of-court reconciliation, reducing the time and cost for resolving labor disputes. The new legislation also broadens the coverage of unemployment insurance.

DB 2015: Italy relaxed the conditions for using fixed-term contracts but reduced their maximum duration to 36 months.

DB 2010: Italy allowed the use of fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks.

DB 2009: Italy increased the notice period for redundancy dismissals.

Kazakhstan

DB 2017: Kazakhstan adopted a new labor code that decreased the wage premium for work on weekly holidays, eliminated the requirement to reassign employees before making them redundant, extended the maximum duration of probationary periods and introduced mandatory out-of-court mediation procedures before parties can file claims in court.

DB 2009: Kazakhstan increased paid annual leave and also introduced a reassignment obligation applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Kiribati

DB 2018: Kiribati introduced a mandatory minimum wage, provided specific rules on working hours, introduced annual paid leave and streamlined redundancy rules.

Korea, Rep.

DB 2009: Korea increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts.

Kosovo

DB 2013: Kosovo introduced a minimum wage.

DB 2012: Kosovo increased the premium for night work as well as the days of annual leave. In addition, Kosovo decreased the notice period applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Kuwait

DB 2011: Kuwait increased the number of days of paid annual leave and increased the notice period applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Kyrgyz Republic

DB 2010: The Kyrgyz Republic eliminated the requirement for third-party notification for redundancy dismissals. In addition, it repealed the retraining or reassignment obligations and priority rules for reemployment that apply in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Lao PDR

DB 2016: Lao PDR capped the duration of renewable fixed-term contracts (previously unlimited) at 36 months and reduced the maximum length of a probationary period from 3 months to 2. It also eliminated the requirement for third-party approval before an employer can dismiss one worker or a group of nine workers and reduced the severance payment for employees with 5 and 10 years of tenure.

Latvia

DB 2018: Latvia amended its legislation to extend the duration of the contribution period that is required before an employee can become eligible for unemployment protection.

DB 2016: 1) Latvia increased the maximum duration of a single fixed-term contract from 36 months to 60. 2) Latvia increased its minimum wage

DB 2013: Latvia eliminated notification requirements to third parties in cases of redundancy dismissal.

DB 2008: Latvia increased the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts and introduced a requirement for third-party notification for a single redundancy dismissal.

Liberia

DB 2017: Liberia shortened the workweek by increasing the mandatory number of weekly rest hours to 36 consecutive hours with Sunday designated as the weekly holiday. It also mandated a maximum of five overtime hours per week. Liberia also introduced paid annual leave entitlements to employees after one year of employment, extended the duration of paid maternity leave and mandated equal remuneration for work of equal value.

Lithuania

DB 2012: Lithuania allowed fixed-term contracts to be concluded for permanent tasks (until 31 July 2012).

Luxembourg

DB 2010: Luxembourg increased the severance payments applicable in redundancy dismissals.

Macedonia, FYR

DB 2016: 1) FYR Macedonia introduced amendments to its Labor Relations Act relating to social contributions, employment contracts, independent contractors, annual leave, overtime work, health inspections and labor disputes. 2) The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia increased the minimum wage.

DB 2010: FYR Macedonia allowed the use of fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks and reduced mandatory paid annual leave. In addition, it repealed the retraining or reassignment obligations and priority rules for reemployment that apply in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Malawi

DB 2012: Malawi decreased the severance pay applicable in case of redundancy dismissals of workers with 10 years of service.

Malaysia

DB 2014: Malaysia introduced a minimum wage.

DB 2011: Malaysia eliminated the requirements to notify third parties in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Maldives

DB 2010: Maldives reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and increased mandatory paid annual leave.

Mauritius

DB 2015: Mauritius reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts.

DB 2010: Mauritius increased mandatory paid annual leave, eliminated the requirement to seek prior approval for redundancy dismissals and reduced redundancy costs.

Mexico

DB 2017: Mexico adopted a resolution that eliminated geographic differences in national minimum wages. Prior to the reform Mexico was divided into two zones—zone A and zone B—with different applicable minimum wages. This reform applies to both Mexico City and Monterrey.

Moldova

DB 2008: : Moldova increased the severance payments applicable in redundancy dismissals.

Mongolia

DB 2018: Mongolia amended its legislation to reduce the maximum length of the employee probationary period.

Montenegro

DB 2013: Montenegro lowered redundancy costs—though it also reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and increased paid annual leave.

DB 2010: Montenegro allowed the use of fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks and set no limits on the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts. In addition, it eliminated the requirement for third-party notification for the redundancy dismissal of one worker and reduced redundancy costs.

Morocco

DB 2016: 1) Morocco implemented an unemployment insurance scheme. 2) Morocco increased the minimum wage increased from 12.24 to 12.85 DH/hour as of July 1, 2014, according to decree n° 2.14.343 of June 2014, published in the official bulletin 5292.

Mozambique

DB 2009: Mozambique increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and also reduced the notice period applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

Myanmar

DB 2017: Myanmar introduced a minimum wage and changed the regulation of severance pay.

Namibia

DB 2010: Namibia increased mandatory paid annual leave.

Netherlands

DB 2017: The Netherlands reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts from 36 to 24 months. Severance pay was introduced for redundancy dismissals for employees with at least 2 years of continuous employment.

Niger

DB 2014: Niger increased the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts.

Norway

DB 2017: Norway allowed the use of fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks for 12 months.

Oman

DB 2013: Oman reduced the maximum number of working days per week and increased the paid annual leave applicable for employees with one year of service.

Paraguay

DB 2018: Paraguay increased the mandatory the length of paid maternity leave

Peru

DB 2010: Peru decreased mandatory paid annual leave and reduced the severance payments applicable in redundancy dismissals.

Poland

DB 2017: Poland reduced the maximum duration of fixed term contracts to 33 months and limited the total number of fixed term contracts between the same employer and employee to three.

DB 2011: Poland reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts.

Portugal

DB 2017: Portugal reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts.

DB 2016: Portugal introduced priority rules for redundancy dismissals and new regulations for collective bargaining agreements.

DB 2015: Portugal reduced the amount of severance pay per year of service and increased the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts.

DB 2014: Portugal reduced the wage premium for weekly holiday work and abolished priority rules for redundancy dismissals.

DB 2013: Portugal increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and reduced the severance pay applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

DB 2011: Portugal approved a new Labor Code.

DB 2010: Portugal increased both the notice period for redundancy dismissals and the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts.

Puerto Rico (U.S.)

DB 2018: Puerto Rico (U.S.) increased the length of the maximum probationary period for permanent employees, decreased the wage premium for overtime and weekly holiday work, decreased the mandatory paid annual leave and established severance payments for all employees wrongfully made redundant.

Romania

DB 2012: Romania increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and also decreased the severance pay applicable in case of redundancy dismissal of employees.

DB 2008: Romania increased the severance payments applicable in redundancy dismissals.

Rwanda

DB 2010: Rwanda increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and eliminated the obligation to notify and seek the approval of a third party in cases of redundancy dismissals.

São Tomé and Príncipe

DB 2017: São Tomé and Príncipe adopted a minimum wage for the private sector.

Saudi Arabia

DB 2017: Saudi Arabia increased the length of the notice period for redundancy dismissals.

Serbia

DB 2010: Serbia introduced priority rules applying to redundancy dismissals or layoffs.

Singapore

DB 2018: Singapore adopted legislation that requires employers with more than 10 employees to notify the Ministry of Manpower if five or more employees are retrenched within any six-month period.

Slovak Republic

DB 2014: The Slovak Republic reduced the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts, reintroduced the requirement for third-party notification when terminating an employee, reintroduced mandatory severance pay for workers with more than 2 years of service in the company and increased the minimum wage.

DB 2013: The Slovak Republic increased the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts, eliminated notification requirements to third parties in case of redundancy dismissals and reduced redundancy costs.

DB 2011: Slovak Republic reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts.

Slovenia

DB 2014: Slovenia abolished priority rules for reemployment, changed the notice period and severance pay provisions for redundancy dismissals and increased the minimum wage.

DB 2009: Slovenia decreased the notice period applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

DB 2008: Slovenia reduced the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts.

Spain

DB 2014: Spain reduced the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts and increased the minimum wage.

DB 2013: Spain temporarily allowed unlimited duration of fixed-term contracts.

DB 2011: Spain reduced the notice period applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Sweden

DB 2009: Sweden reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts.

Switzerland

DB 2008: Switzerland allowed the workweek to extend to 50 hours (including overtime) for 2 months a year in response to a seasonal increase in production.

Syrian Arab Republic

DB 2011: Syria eliminated the severance payment obligation but increased the notice period applicable in case of redundancy dismissals. Implemented a 100% pay premium for weekly holiday work and decreased the total term limit of fixed-term contracts.

Taiwan, China

DB 2018: Taiwan, China, adopted legislation that increased the number of mandatory paid annual leave days and the number of weekly rest days.

Tajikistan

DB 2018: Tajikistan adopted legislation that changes to the rules of severance payments. It also abolished restrictions on night work by non-pregnant women and non-nursing mothers.

Timor-Leste

DB 2013: Timor-Leste reduced the maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and also introduced a wage premium for night work.

Togo

DB 2013: Togo increased the wage premium for weekly holiday work and the severance payment in cases of redundancy dismissal.

DB 2008: Togo prohibited the use of fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks.

Uganda

DB 2008: Uganda eliminated restrictions on working on the weekly rest day and introduced a requirement for third-party notification for collective dismissals.

United Arab Emirates

DB 2017: The United Arab Emirates reduced the duration of a single fixed-term contract from 48 to 24 month.

DB 2008: The United Arab Emirates abolished the requirement for severance payments.

United Kingdom

DB 2014: United Kingdom increased the cap on weekly wage provided to employees on the severance payment and the minimum wage.

DB 2013: The United Kingdom increased redundancy costs of the severance pay applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

DB 2012: United Kingdom increased the severance payment obligation applicable in cases of redundancy dismissals.

DB 2010: The United Kingdom increased mandatory paid annual leave.

DB 2009: The United Kingdom increased the mandatory paid annual leave.

United States

DB 2018: The United States – Los Angeles increased the maximum paid days of sick leave a year.

Vanuatu

DB 2011: Vanuatu increased mandatory annual leave and severance pay applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.

Venezuela, RB

DB 2013: República Bolivariana de Venezuela introduced a new Labor Code that prohibits redundancy dismissals.

Vietnam

DB 2014: Vietnam abolished priority rules for redundancy dismissals or layoffs and increased the minimum wage.

West Bank and Gaza

DB 2014: West Bank and Gaza introduced a minimum wage.

Zambia

DB 2017: Zambia eliminated fixed-term contracts for permanent tasks.

DB 2008: Zambia increased mandatory paid annual leave.

Zimbabwe

DB 2017: Zimbabwe reduced severance payments and introduced stricter rules governing fixed-term contracts.

DB 2011: Zimbabwe reduced the severance payment obligation applicable in case of redundancy dismissals.