Are all labor regulations equal? Evidence from Indian manufacturingAuthor(s):
Ahmad Ahsan and Carmen Pagés
Journal of Comparative Economics 37 (1) (2009) 62–75.
Taking advantage of variation across Indian states in labor reforms, this paper studies the economic effects of labor dispute resolution legislation (DL) and employment protection legislation (EPL) in the manufacturing sector. We find that laws that increase the cost of dispute resolution or employment protection substantially reduce registered sector employment and output, although the cost of industrial dispute regulation on output is larger. There is evidence of strong complementarities on labor laws: The output or employment costs of EPL are larger in states and periods where it is more difficult to resolve disputes, and not very important when such costs are low. Workers do not benefit from EPL or DL, as they do not increase the labor share or the wage bill, although EPL has a small positive effect on earnings per worker. Labor-intensive industries, such as textiles, are the hardest hit by amendments that increase employment protection while capital-intensive industries are the most affected by laws that increase the cost of labor dispute resolution.
Can Labor Regulation Hinder Economic Performance? Evidence from IndiaAuthor(s):
Timothy Besley and Robin Burgess
Quarterly Journal of Economics 119(1): 91–134, 2004
This paper investigates whether the industrial relations climate in Indian states has affected the pattern of manufacturing growth in the period 1958-1992. We show that states which amended the Industrial Disputes Act in a pro-worker direction experienced lowered output, employment, investment, and productivity in registered or formal manufacturing. In contrast, output in unregistered or informal manufacturing increased. Regulating in a pro-worker direction was also associated with increases in urban poverty. This suggests that attempts to redress the balance of power between capital and labor can end up hurting the poor.
Computer Usage and Labour Regulation in India's Retail SectorAuthor(s):
Journal of Development Studies , Vol. 46, Issue: 9 Pages: 1572-1592, 2010
A recent survey of 1,948 retail stores in India conducted by the World Bank's Enterprise surveys shows that 19 per cent of all stores use computers. In the state of Kerala, the figure is as high as 40 per cent. Using this survey, we estimate the effect of computer usage on labour employment. Our findings show that this effect depends on the stringency of the underlying labour laws. Stricter labour laws magnify the labour displacing effect of computers significantly.